Keyword: Altar wine
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In the Christian faith plays the altar wine (altar wine also) play a central role in the transformation of bread and wine into Christ's flesh and blood, which on the first Lord's Supper in the New Testament Bible back. Since the beginning of the era, so has the wine in the Catholic Church played an enormously important role and was (also) for motivation, particularly with regard to viticulture and winemaking endeavor. In Europe, particularly the three monastic orders of the Benedictine , Carthusians and Cistercian great service. In the conquest and exploitation of New World by Spanish and Portuguese conquistadors from the beginning of the 16th Century was the planting of vines and brought the production of sacramental wine, the start and push the wine culture in North and South America. It played the Order of the Franciscans in California and the Jesuits in Peru an important role.
Many still there, planted grapes originate from this period, for example, the historical Mission . In the early days of the Christian community has been issued for the show at all (priests and laity) of wine and bread and the communion of all believers "in both kinds" enjoyed. This has that changed over the centuries and was not more widely practiced, anywhere. For purely practical reasons (eg lack of wine or hygienic reasons) was distributed to the laity usually only bread in the form of the host and only the priest celebrant enjoyed representative of the community and wine from the Measuring cup .
As part of the Reformation continued to be the first John Hus (1369-1415), and then Martin Martin Luther (1483-1546) and John Calvin (1509-1564) in the first half of the 16th Century vehemently to one, to return to the Christian origins back. It was also demanded by the reformers, necessary to use wine (and not grape juice or other beverage) and the wine and not to mix with water. In this regard, it came to the so-called "liquororistischen dispute" within the church (see details below Eucharist ). This custom was eventually also in all Protestant churches, while in the Roman Catholic Church remains the only wine to the priest was allowed. After the Second Vatican Council (1962-1965) was the sacramental wine in the Roman Catholic Church for the amateur (only) allowed on special occasions and at various fairs again.
The nature of sacramental wine in the Roman Catholic Church law, Canon 924 Â§ 3 of the short and succinct: (the wine "Vinum debet naturale de genimine vitis et non esse corruptum" must naturrein and are made from grapes and must not be spoiled). The default "purely natural" (natural) completed a previously Filtration and stabilization. Of these, one has gone off for good reasons, that is, it is a common protein stabilization. The only real requirement is that no Enrich Allowed (adding sugar) occur. There is also no Alcohol content prescribed. Until about the mid-15th Century has been exclusively used as a measuring red wine, because of these well-adapted to symbolize the blood of Christ. Pope Sixtus IV (1414-1484) was the first time in 1478 for white wine. Today, every quality wine can be used that meets the statutory standards. Measurement of wine can be white or red, dry to sweet, and also different type of her to be a still wine, dessert wine or sparkling wine. However, it is mostly used white wine. Red wine is unpopular for practical reasons, since any stains to be easily visible on the altar cloth and the vestments were.
At Wine adulteration excluded, there used in many countries, the requirement that sacramental wine are sourced from certified producers must specially when the all-natural manufacturing process is not personally be assured in his own basement by visual inspection or production could. This provision no longer exists, although many producers still adorn with the title "Chartered sacramental wine supplier". Out of habit, but many parishes continue to buy the long-established mass wine producers. Designated as a sacramental wine wine may be offered to the parish priest of the diocese, but also in the open market. From customary law shows that sweet wines continue to be used that do not meet the above quality characteristics. Sweet wines were formerly very popular because they are simply more durable. The sweet Vinsanto of the Greek Aegean island Santorini was once the altar wine to the Russian Orthodox Church and a major export item. The Greek Orthodox Church still uses like sweet Samos from Greece. In Italy, often a Vin Santo (Holy wine) as a sacramental wine used. Other special wines such as Madeira , Port and Sherry are permitted. In the USA For example, in some states, a measurement-sparkling wine produced. See also Eucharist .