Keyword: American vines
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General term for all of North America derived Wild Vines . By the geographic distribution of the wild species Vitis subgenus Vitis is subg. Vitis divided into a European, an Asian and an American group. In America, about 30 wild species are recognized as independent. All have 19 chromosomes pairs (2n = 38). The second only occurring in America Vitis subgenus Vitis subg. Muscadinia has another DNA with 20 pairs of chromosomes (2n = 40). The nodes are without diaphragm , the Tendrils unbranched, the berries are dropped individually to maturity. Some experts advocate Muscadinia to rise to its own genus. It includes the southeastern United States spread Vitis rotundifolia with two varieties. The Ampelograph Pierre Pierre Galet (* 1921) expects the Mexican wild species Vitis popenoei JH Fennel also included. Muscadinia does play for wine production is not particularly important, the species Vitis rotundifolia is due to their resistance against Nematodes for breeding new varieties and rootstock base and interesting. However, the different chromosomes prepare for crosses major problems. An especially negative for the European palate characteristic of some American vines are strawberry flavored and Foxton . This particularly applies to the species Vitis labrusca and Vitis rotundifolia. For the production of wine and grape or as rootstocks are significantly (in parenthesis some botanical synonyms, then the trivial synonyms):
Vitis subg. Muscadinia
* Vitis popenoei - Toto Loche Grape
* Vitis rotundifolia with the varieties and munsoniana rotundifolia - Southern Fox Grape
Vitis subg. Vitis - American branch
* Vitis acerifolia (Vitis longii, Vitis solonis) - Buschrebe, Sumpfrebe
* Vitis aestivalis (Vitis rufotomentosa, Vitis simpsonii) - Sommerrebe
* Vitis arizonica (Vitis treleasii) - Arizona Grape, Grape Canyon
* Vitis berlandieri - old still often used name for Vitis cinerea var helleri
* bourquina Vitis (Vitis aestivalis var bourquiniana Bailey) - Southern Summer Grape
* Vitis californica (Vitis girdiana Munson) - California Grape, Grape Pacific
* Vitis candicans - old still often used name for Vitis mustangensis
* Vitis champinii - Champinsrebe
* Vitis cinerea (Vitis aestivalis var cinerea) - Grape Graybark
* Vitis cinerea var helleri (Vitis berlandieri) - Kalkrebe
* Vitis coignetiae (Vitis amurensis Rupr glabrescens var.) - Auburn Vine
* Vitis doaniana - Buschrebe
* Vitis labrusca (Vitis canina Raf.) - Erdbeerrebe, Fuchsrebe, Northern Fox Grape
* Vitis labruscana - no Rebespezies but Labrusca group of hybrids
* Vitis monticola (Vitis champanii) - Sweet Mountain Grape
* mustangensis Vitis (Vitis candicans) - Mustangrebe
* Vitis riparia (Vitis riparia vulpina ssp.) - Flussrebe, Uferrebe
* Vitis rupestris (Vitis vinifera var rupestris Kuntze) - Felsenrebe, Sandrebe
* vulpina Vitis (Vitis cordifolia) - FÃ¼chsinrebe
American wild species are in viticulture therefore significant because it Resistance (resistance skills) compared to Europe from America imported diseases and pests have. Thus, many American wild species (Vitis riparia and particularly Vitis cinerea) on their roots resistant to the native American and mid-19th Century to Europe entrained phylloxera . In addition, the wild species have natural resistance to the U.S. also comes from harmful fungi mildew and downy mildew on. This phylloxera resistance of roots was against in the last third of the 19th Century used rapidly in Europe spreading phylloxera. When finishing European scions are on American Base and rootstock grafted. All is not finished, ungrafted vines are called Direct support (self supporting).
The solution of the mildew problem now to be solved through cross-breeding. In this fungus-resistant wild mushroom species with vulnerable European grape varieties are crossed. The result of this Interspecific crossing are called hybrids . These primary hybrids do indeed often have a high resistance to fungi, but was often the undesirable Foxton of wild species inherited. Many hybrids and documents were to the turn of the century by the famous French breeders like Georges Georges Couderc (1850-1928) and Christian Oberlin Christian bred (1831-1915), which is why this variety group called "French hybrids". Originally in America from local breeders produced and imported to Europe varieties are called "American Hybrid". Various American game species are crossed together to documents in addition to a high resistance to phylloxera and mildew species with good suitability for as many different locations and soil type to produce.
Among the most important historical varieties America Europe's first cultivated in America Vinifera grape mission . American grapes are still grown in many U.S. states and cultivated for its fungal resistance in South America, Japan, Canada and the former Eastern bloc. Within the EU, the use of American vines for quality wines is due to EU regulations prohibited. Also, the further planting is prohibited. See ref. Vines pedigree under Vines classification , as well as Asians vines and European vines .