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Initial experiments were with viticulture in this South American country already in 1541, when Spanish conquistadors at the mouth of the Rio de la Plata on the Atlantic coast of vines planted. This was to no avail. Argentinian wine really began with the production of altar wine . The citizens of the northern city of Santiago del Estero located in the province built a church and were looking for a pastor. Of the conquistadors from Spain has come CedrÃ³n Jesuit priest traveled from the other side of the Andes Chile and was the gift of cotton seed, wheat, barley and some European vines, including the still cultivated varieties Criolla Chica and Criolla Grande (varieties of Mission ), And Cereza . These he planted in 1557. In the province of San Juan in the west of the country then came to the end of the 16th Century, a commercial vineyard.
As the founder of the Argentine wine is Don Tiburcio Benegas (1844-1910), the Godoy Cruz 1883, the winery still exists today Trapiche founded and successfully experimented with European and Chilean grapes. In 1886 he became governor of the province Mendoza and until his death remained a supporter of the Argentine wine industry. His father was Don Eusebio Blanco in 1872 the book "Las viÃ±as y los vinos de Mendoza" was written, is considered the first major work on the Argentine wine. Mid-19th Century led to the French agronomist AimÃ© Pouget varieties Cabernet Sauvignon and Malbec one, temptation is now the most important Argentine red wine grape. At the beginning of the 18th and then again towards the end of the 19th Century there were two large European immigration flows, especially from the countries of Italy, Spain and France. These immigrants gave the wine a tremendous boost. Beginning of the 20th Century imported Leopoldo Suarez 600 varieties of the major European wine regions.
The highly fragmented vineyards stretch from Salta in the north to Chubut in the south. They form a strip in the west with a length of 1.750 and a width of 100 kilometers along the foothills of the Andes. The average altitude of 600-1200 meters above sea level resulting cool night temperatures. But there is still much higher vineyards in 2,400 meters and above. The Winery ColomÃ© vines grown in Salta in 3111 meters and has thus highest altitude vineyard the world. Due to very low rainfall with an average of 200 to 250 millimeters per year (there are often relatively Hail ), Low Humidity and very dry (with the advantage that fungal diseases are rare) is an artificial Irrigation inevitable. This is done primarily through a channel network that was started centuries ago by Native Americans. The water comes from snowmelt leading many rivers with their sources in the nearby Andes, as well as thousands of deep wells with depths of 60 to 120 meters and pumped water is directed into furrows through the tangled vines. A modern form of the droplet irrigation.
In the year 2007 was 225 800 hectares of vineyards, of which, 15.04 million hectoliters of wine produced. Stand at around 10,000 hectares of pure Table grape , A further 3,500 hectares are used for the production of Raisins . An Argentinean feature is the classification of vine varieties in red, pink and white varieties. Mid-1970s had amounted to 350,000 hectares of vineyards yet. With a white wine boom market regulation and government measures 130,000 hectares have been cleared. The most common varieties with 67,000 hectares of vines are yielding pink Criolla Chica, Criolla Grande, Cereza, Moscatel Rosado and others, to the bright and simple wines RTK (Rectified concentrated grape must) be processed. Two-thirds are mass wines from white and pink varieties by the glass, Tetra Pak larger markets and glass bottles. The main red grape is Malbec, which the Argentine situation is ideal. Since the Phylloxera little importance has played a large part of the vine is still growing on their own roots. However, it is converted to growing grafted vines. The Varieties (2006):
Grape Synonyms - varieties Color Hectare %-Ant Criolla Grande Mission (Mexico), Pais (Chile) pink 35 000 15.7 Cereza Ceresa, Cereza Nera pink 30 000 13.5 Malbec Malbeck red 23 000 10.3 Bonarda Bonarda Piemontese or Charbono red 18 000 8.7 Cabernet Sauvignon - red 15 500 6.6 Pedro GimÃ©nez Pedro XimÃ©nez (Spain) white 14 700 6.5 Syrah Balsamina (Arg), Balsamia, Balsemina red 11 700 5.2 TorrontÃ©s Riojano Malvasia, TorrontÃ©s white 8100 3.6 Merlot - red 7400 3.3 Muscat of Alexandria Moscatel de Alejandria (Arg), Zibibbo white 5400 2.4 Chardonnay - white 5100 2.3 TorrontÃ©s Riojano Moscatel de Austria (Chile), TorrontÃ©s white 3100 1.4 Chenin Blanc - white 3000 1.3 Criolla Chica Negra Corriente, Uva PaÃs pink 1800 0.8 Sauvignon Blanc - white 1000 0.5 Moscatel Rosado Moscatel Rosada Rosada de Talca pink 1000 0.5 Tempranillo Tempranilla red 1000 0.5 Barbera - red 500 0.2 Dolcetto - red 500 0.2 Pinot Gris - white 500 0.2 Riesling - white 500 0.2 Sauvignon Vert Sauvignonasse white 500 0.2 SÃ©millon - white 500 0.2 Tannat Harriague Pascual (Arg, Uruguay), Tannat Noir red 500 0.2 TorrontÃ©s Riojano Palet, TorrontÃ©s white 500 0.2 Ugni Blanc - white 500 0.2 Viognier - white 500 0.2 Red varieties 101 000 45 Pink varieties 67 000 30 White varieties 55 000 25
Founded in 1959, "Instituto Nacional de Vitivinicultura" (INV) is responsible for establishing the guidelines of a quality wine, and for monitoring compliance. There are three quality categories. The "Vinos de Corte" come mainly from Mendoza and San Juan and are destined for the scrap. In the light "Vinos Communes" no value at home, year or Reinsortigkeit is placed. The "Vinos Finos" subject to specific regulations regarding vintage, origin, grape variety and aging in the bottle. In 1993, a source system was introduced. The three-tier system consists of "de Indicaciones Procedencia (IP), Indicaciones GeogrÃ¡ficas (IG) and the highest level Controlada Designation of Origin (DOC). For the latter, and maximum yields are determined. The first DOC was LujÃ¡n de Cuyo (Mendoza) classified by year 1992nd Followed are MaipÃº, Rio Negro, San Rafael and Valle de Calchaqui. The two largest wine companies, which are also among the largest in the world, Catena and PeÃ±aflor . Others are listed under the wine-growing regions:
* Catamarca with 2,300 acres
* Chubut with 100 acres
* Jujuy with 500 acres
* La Rioja (Argentina) 7,000 ha
* Mendoza with 144,000 ha
* Rio Negro and Neuquen, with 5,500 hectares
* Salta and Cafayate sub-area of 1,500 ha
* San Juan with 50,000 hectares