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In Austria, already since the time of settlement by the Celts nearly 3,000 years ago viticulture. The Burgenland community Zagersdorf in vineyards Neusiedlersee Hill Country and the Lower Austrian town Stillfried in vineyards Weinviertel are considered the oldest wine-growing municipalities in Austria. In both types of grape seeds were found that date from 700 or 900 BC, and clearly the species Vitis vinifera are assigned. The decision by emperor Domitian (51-96) to ban the planting of vines outside Italy by Emperor Marcus Aurelius Probus (232-282) had a decisive effect on the wine. Because it started in the provinces of Noricum (Upper and Lower Austria) and Pannonia (Burgenland), organized viticulture. In the long period of mass migration of wine came to a near standstill. He was just back from the 9th Century under the influence of Emperor Charlemagne (742-814) revived. Special services to the wine are the order of Benedictine and Cistercian due. In the Middle Ages, especially the four monasteries GĂ¶ttweig (Kremstal), Klosterneuburg Abbey (Wagram), Melk (Wachau) and Stiftsweingut Holy Cross - Freigut Thallern (thermal region), the carrier of viticulture. Also a significant contribution in the historic Dinstlgut (Wachau).
The oldest Austrian wine regulations related to working time and is fixed penalties for theft of wine grapes Habsburg Duke Albrecht II (1298-1358) to 1352 (see below Vineyard keeper ). By the Middle Ages, there was also a classification of wines of quality classes (see below Burgenland ). In the 16th Century, reached its peak in Austria wine, the vineyard was approximately 150,000 to 200,000 hectares, at least maybe even three times as large as today (50,000 ha). The Salzburg MĂ¶nchsberg was also planted with vines as the slopes of the Semmering. There were vineyards in Linz (Upper Austria), Salzburg, and to a large extent also in Carinthia and Tyrol. And the capital Vienna was literally built on vineyards. Probably the oldest wine book published in German clergyman of Johann John quickly (1540-1612) describes in detail the vineyards, the winery techniques and drinking habits of the time. With the advent of Beer , High tax burdens and the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648) but it came in the 17th Century into a decline. Issues brought before all the tax, even Ungeld called because it was in just twelve years old increased from 10% to 30%.
This meant that many vineyards uprooted and planted instead of wheat or other products were. Now, were inferior varieties are preferred, and from cheap mass-produced wine. Under Maria Theresa (1717-1780) orders were issued for utilization cheap wine. It caused a lot of vinegar, boiling houses, liquor distilleries and mustard production from grape must. Under Emperor Joseph II (1741-1790) was born on 17 August 1784 in a written decree allowed to sell their own Fechsung in-house. He laid the foundation stone for the Viennese and Austrian Winery . In the 19th Century there were some disasters. An extreme cold snap, from America, introduced fungal diseases, viral diseases, as well as the negative peak of the Phylloxera devastated vineyards throughout. After Austria, the pest likely arrived in 1867, when August Wilhelm Freiherr von Babo August-Wilhelm (1827-1894), director of in 1860, founded Klosterneuburg Viticulture Institute , American vines was given in Germany.
A milestone in the history of Austrian wine was by Robert Schlumberger set (1814-1879). This set produced in 1846 after his champagne method "VĂ¶slauer sparkling white" before that was a great success. After the Second World War, the old structures by rationalization and mechanization have changed. The changeover to the new training system, the so-called high culture through Lenz Moser AG (1905-1978) in Rohrdorf Krems in NE. allowed the use of modern equipment. After the "wine scandal" in 1985 (see below Diethylene glycol ) in Austria were even stricter laws and controls introduced mainly, which contributed significantly to quality improvement. In 1993, the project Certification of vines started with the goal of increasing long term analysis and selection as healthy vine-quality material.
Austria is characterized by a Continental Pannonian climate. There are cold winters and hot, dry summers with long Vegetation cycle . Warm, sunny summer days with cool nights and often mild autumn days are typical for most growing areas. The average annual rainfall is 400 millimeters in the east, in Styria, it may be 800 millimeters or more. Positive impact the Danube and Lake Neusiedl in Burgenland. On the banks of the second largest steppe lake in Europe in the late autumn of ripe grapes often the predicate outbreak levels, Beerenauslese and Trockenbeerenauslese approach. Due to the often very low temperatures from December to January in the East is also a significant production of Icewine possible.
The elevation is usually about 200 meters to 400 meters in Lower Austria, the highest altitude vineyard located in Styria to 560 meters above sea level. The vineyards are mostly in the temperate climates without extremes, such as on the 47th and 48 Latitude, comparable to the French Burgundy. There are different types of soil, in the wine district and in the Danube valley dominated loess in Krems, Wachau Kamp and veteran prevails in the thermal region lime in the Burgenland, slate, clay, marl and loess to sand. In Styria dominate brown earth and volcanic soils.
In the last 20 years there have been enormous structural changes. The number of wineries has halved from 45 380 with an average farm size of 1.28 hectares (1987) to 32 044 with 1.52 hectares (1999), and finally to 20 181 with 2.26 hectares (2009) or reduced during this period . Many small wineries with a few acres of vineyards and farm size have sold their land to larger farms, or abandoned cultivation. About 6,500 companies are bottling Producers who deliver their grapes to other wineries or wineries Winzergenossenschaft . Slightly more than half of the bottlers produce annually 5000-10000 liters of wine.
Austria is divided into three wine regions (by 2009 there were four of Vienna). This is wine country Austria (with the vineyards of Burgenland, Lower Austria and Vienna), Steirerland (wine region of Styria) and mountain country Austria (other states). Somewhat confusing is that Burgenland and Lower Austria are described both as a whole and its divisions as a winegrowing areas. The wine-growing region is under Steirerland "Styria" in addition, a growing area.
From the 2002 vintage was started in Austria to work out clear territorial typical wine profiles. These special wines are marketed under the name of the specific area with the addition of DAC markets (Austria Controllatus Districtus). Usually bear the name of the DAC-areas of the vineyard and also coincide with the boundaries. However, there are exceptions like Leithaberg and Eisenberg:
TOTAL AUSTRIA 45 908 48 497 Wine Country Austria (Burgenland, Lower, Vienna) 41 582 43 224 Burgenland 13 842 13 496 Mittelburgenland with Mittelburgenland DAC 2118 1845 Lake Neusiedl with Leithaberg DAC 7649 7534 Neusiedlersee Hill Country with Leithaberg DAC 3576 3678 SĂĽdburgenland with Eisenberg DAC 499 437 Lower Austria 27 128 29 134 Carnuntum 910 842 Kamp with Kamptal DAC 3802 3722 Kremstal with Kremstal DAC 2243 2102 Thermenregion 2196 2118 Traisental with Traisental DAC 789 670 Wachau with Vinea Wachau Nobilis Districtus 1350 1326 Wagram (Born 2006 Donauland) 2452 2633 Weinviertel with Weinviertel DAC 13 356 15 751 Vienna 594 679 Styria ) 4242 3242 SĂĽdoststeiermark 1401 1105 SĂĽdsteiermark 2340 1739 West Styria 501 432 Bergland Austria (Austria-rest)
Carinthia, Upper Austria, Salzburg, Tyrol, Vorarlberg
All wine-growing areas are in the European Growing zone (In Germany mostly A). Derived from this, special wine-EU legal requirements, under the Enrich , Deacidification , Acidification and Sweetening are described in detail. Quality, predicate and DAC wines have a Analytical Review and sensory Are audited and received a positive decision, the State control number given.
The following is based on the Blend in 2009 carried out in Austria vineyard survey. Compared to the last 1999 survey result some significant changes. The proportion of red varieties has increased from 25.5% to 34.4% - the long established trend has continued so. The GrĂĽner Veltliner is still lonely at the top, the proportion has, however, decreased from 36.0% to 29.5%. The most common red wine variety Zweigelt increased from 9.0% to 14.1%. The Chardonnay (Morillon) and Pinot Blanc 1999 were not recorded together. For some varieties, there were enormous changes (see table). The total vineyard area decreased by 5.3% from 48 497 to 45 908 hectares. In 2009, 2.352 million hectoliters of wine produced (see also Wine production quantities ).
The 35 varieties in the table represent the Quality wine grape varieties (22 white wines and 13 red wines), which can be used for all the qualities of wine. For table wine, quality wine and quality wine may only be used in this 35th For the lowest quality level "wine without grapes / year" in addition to white wines are Bronner (Variety) , Cabernet Blanc , John , MUSCARIS and Souvignier Gris , And the red varieties Cabernet Law and Regent permitted. This PIWI (Fungus-resistant) are common in organic viticulture for some time. It is expected that once these are also classified as a quality wine grapes. The denominations Pinot Blanc, Pinot Gris, Pinot Noir, Riesling and BlaufrĂ¤nkisch are allowed to "wine and grape without / year" not to be confused with the fact suggestive of areas of origin (Burgundy, Rhine, Franks) to exclude. Permits are synonymous with Pinot Blanc, Pinot Gris, Pinot Noir and Riesling.
Variety - Austrian
in Austria, officially permitted
GrĂĽner Veltliner WeiĂźgipfler white 13 518 29.4 17 479 Zweigelt Blauer Zweigelt, Rotburger red 6476 14.1 4350 Welschriesling - white 3597 7.8 4323 BlaufrĂ¤nkisch - red 3225 7.0 2641 MĂĽller-Thurgau Rivaner white 2102 4.6 3289 White Burgundy Pinot Blanc , Klevner , Pinot Blanc white 1995 4.3 ? White Riesling Riesling , Rhine Riesling white 1863 4.1 1643 Blue Portugal - red 1622 3.5 2358 Chardonnay Morillon white 1431 3.1 ? Sauvignon Blanc Muskat-Sylvaner white 933 2.0 314 Blueburger - red 903 2.0 884 Mixed Set - white 807 1.8 1371 St. Laurent - red 778 1.7 415 Neuburger - white 652 1.4 1094 Pinot Noir Pinot Noir , Blue SpĂ¤tb. red, pink. red 649 1.4 409 Merlot - red 649 1.4 112 Cabernet Sauvignon - red 594 1.3 312 Muscatel Muscat, Red M. white 527 1.1 143 Blue Wildbacher - red 450 1.0 464 Early Roter Veltliner Malmsey white 424 0.9 626 Scheurebe Seedling 88 white 398 0.9 529 Muscat Ottonel - white 360 0.8 418 Traminer Gewurztraminer, T. Red, T. Yellow white 321 0.7 363 Bouvier - white 234 0.5 365 Pinot Gris Pinot Gris , Pinot Grigio white 222 0.5 293 Roter Veltliner - white 193 0.4 258 Roesler - red 161 0.4 0 Goldburger - white 150 0.3 309 Syrah Shiraz red 137 0.3 0 Rotgipfler - white 105 0.2 118 Zierfandler SpĂ¤trot white 85 0.2 98 Cabernet Franc - red 56 0.1 27 Mixed Set - red 51 0.1 358 Silvaner GrĂĽner Sylvaner white 43 0.1 53 JubilĂ¤umsrebe - white 13 - 30 Furmint - white 9 - A Rathay - red 9 - 0 And. white varieties - red 155 0.3 91 And. red varieties - red 9 - 22 WHITE VARIETIES 30 138 65.6 36 145 RED VARIETIES 15 770 34.4 12 352 TOTAL 45 908 100 48 497
As a result, important legal provisions are given wine. All valid from August 2009 through the EU wine market organization resulting changes are considered:
Most weight : the Austrian wine law specifies for each wine quality level set a minimum must weight of the harvested grapes (see further down).
Yield : up to wine without grapes / year of three times average yield per hectare in an establishment; for all other grades of maximum yield per hectare is 9000 kg or 6750 liters of wine grapes (1.33 kg of grapes produces a liter of wine).
Origin : For wine (no grapes / year) may only EU or Austria, the land of wine, the wine-growing region specified, smaller units (wine-growing region, vineyard site, community) are not permitted. From quality wine may be more provenances (wine-growing region, vineyard, vineyard site, community, togather with community names) used when the wine is 100% of the specified range.
Year : A statement only wine without grapes / year is not permitted. For the other grades, the proportion of at least 85% of the specified age group. Sweeteners, dosage not counting the 15%. In the next year (January or later) harvested Icewine the previous year must be reported.
Grape : A reference is only for wine (not grape variety / year) is not permitted. For the other grades, the proportion of at least 85% of the specified variety. If two or more varieties, the names are presented in order of their proportion in descending order, then, if they add up to 100%. The statement unmixed is only allowed if the wine is 100% of the specified variety. In late reading and reading, the variety (ies) must be specified.
Sugar content : The term for a certain amount of residual sugar is under EU regulations optional on Label included. Austria has also made the right to define the specification as required. When dry, apply a wine with a maximum of 4 g / l (the former no longer allowed extra dry) or with a maximum of 9 g / l when the Acidity not more than 2 g / l is lower than the residual sugar. For example, 8 g / l, this requires at least 6 g / l total acidity. The remaining levels are medium-dry with 12 g / l or 18 g / l, when the total acid is not more than 10 g / l is lower, sweet with a higher value than for semi-dry but a maximum of 45 g / l, and with at least 45 g / l Legally relevant terms are not wine extra dry , feinherb , tart and Sweetening (Increase of residual sugar) wine with and without grape / vintage year may order a maximum of 4% alcohol content to be sweetened (to understand the meaning), which is about 68 g / l residual sugar , which corresponds to about 5 Â° KMW. On the other hand may land of wine and quality wine up to 15 g / l residual sugar sweetened. Wine Country (which is new) and wine quality (unchanged) can take up to a maximum of 15 g / l of unfermented sugar sweetened. This can be through the addition of grape must, concentrated grape must, or (which is rare) RTK done (rectified grape must). Sucrose is as Sweetening prohibited. At Cabinet and premium wine sweetening is generally not permitted.
Enrich (increase in natural alcoholic strength): Can all types of wine (wine-independent color and quality) to a maximum of 2 vol% alcohol content by means of the approved funds will be made â€‹â€‹(see Enrichment). Following a successful application may be in local wine and quality wine, a content of 15 g / l residual sugar are not exceeded. The alcohol content must be vol in wine with and without grape / vintage for white wines to a maximum of 12% for red wines to a maximum of 12.5% â€‹â€‹for white table wine or quality wine to a maximum of 13.5% volume, and up at a red table wine and quality wine up to 14 , made 5% alcohol by volume content. With wine and quality wine cabinet is an enriching not permissible in principle (even restrictions against EU law).
Wine categories: In August 2009, the EU wine market organization with fundamental changes in the levels of quality wine terms and was valid. In Austria, the previous names local wine, quality wine and quality wine retained (with all predicate levels). The new EU-compliant PGI and PDO labels were even forbidden to confuse consumers. This danger was in the opinion of the authorities also because in 2003, even with the system DAC was introduced (Controllatus Districtus Austria) is a quality wine with geographic origins. The new grades or designations (see also under Quality System ):
* Wine - equivalent to the now banned as a term table wine
* Wine with grapes and / or vintage indication
* = PGI wine wine country wine PGI =
* Wine PDO = Protected Designation of Origin wines with wine quality = / PrĂ¤dikatswein
Without wine varieties and / or vintage indication - wine from Austria (formerly table wine ): A maximum of three times the average yield per hectare of the farm (on the EU would be a limit was not necessary). Apart from this self-imposed limit, there is no other cultivation and production rules, which allows great freedom. The wines may be a small extent Wine error such as a light Sulfurous off exhibit.
Earlier in the table wine: 10.6 Â° Brix (53 Â° Oe) must weight at least 6% actual alcoholic strength by volume, at least 3.5 g / L total acid, 1 liter bottles under inadmissible.
Wine varieties and / or vintage indication - Wines from Austria: In appearance, odor and taste free of errors. Acre maximum yield 9000 kg or 6750 liters of wine grapes. At least 3.5 g / l total acidity. Permissible are all quality wine grapes and other country-specific by appropriate regulation - an indication of variety is allowed only for the above surrounded varieties. Minimum alcohol content 8.5% vol, as the maximum concentration is 2% by volume and therefore allowed to deduct, in other words, there remain 6.5% vol, which are correspondingly 11.2 Â° KMW must weight.
Wine Country or (EXP banned) PGI wine : typical character for the label. Grapes from a vineyard region. Acre maximum yield 9000 kg or 6750 liters of wine grapes. Only quality wine grapes. At least 14 Â° KMW (70 Â° Oe) must weight and thus indirectly a minimum alcohol content. Alcohol content more than 13.5% vol in white wine and a maximum of 14.5% for red wines. At least 4 g / l total acidity. Sweetening to a maximum of 15 g / l
Earlier in the wine country: at least 6% actual alcoholic strength by volume
Mountain Wines: The name may then be used for table wine and quality wine when the grapes of terraces or steep slopes with a slope exceeding 26% was derived and the production in Austria.
Quality wine or (EXP banned) PDO wine : Sensory and analytical testing with positive results and award of State control number . Typical character of the name. Grapes from a vineyard. Production in the wine growing region of the vineyard or in the adjacent region (ie in Austria). Only quality wine grapes. Acre maximum yield 9000 kg or 6750 liters of wine grapes. At least 15 Â° KMW (73 Â° Oe) must weight. At least 9% actual alcoholic strength by volume (PrĂ¤dikatswein 5% vol). At least 4 g / l total acidity. Sweetening to a maximum of 15 g / l
DAC : Must addition to the requirements for quality wine set by the VO for conditions typical of the region with quality wines of origin profiles.
Cabinet : Higher-level quality wines, with Germany still no quality wine. At least 17 Â° KMW (85 Â° Oe), a maximum of 13% alcohol content, up to 9 g / l residual sugar.
PrĂ¤dikatswein : Do all quality wine regulations. A residual sugar can only be achieved by stopping fermentation. A Sweetening or Enrich is not allowed. MostwĂ¤gerbestĂ¤tigung must have the necessary weight required. The alcohol content is at least 5% vol. SpĂ¤tlese wines may not be before 1 January, the other predicates not before 1 May be sold after the harvest year. From the reading it has the grapes to be an increasing percentage of over-ripe, and dried berries with noble rot, caused by Botrytis act (noble rot).
Late Vintage : At least 19 Â° KMW (94 Â° Oe); fully ripe grapes.
Selection : At least 21 Â° KMW (105 Â° Oe); fully ripe grapes read.
Beerenauslese : At least 25 Â° KMW (125 Â° Oe), over-ripe and / or noble rot grapes.
Outbreak : At least 27 Â° KMW (135 Â° Oe), only noble rot, overripe and dried berries. An Austrian specialty from the Burgenland is the Rust outbreak . A must-extraction is allowed.
Trockenbeerenauslese : Mind. 30 Â° KMW (150 Â° Oe); nobly rotten, shriveled grapes.
Icewine : At least 25 Â° KMW (125 Â° Oe). The grapes are pressed and pressed while frozen, the ice (water) remains in the pomace. Failure to achieve the Most degrees can (must) the wine will be marketed as a quality wine.
Straw Wine : Since 2002, alternatively permitted the designation Schilfwein. At least 25 Â° KMW (125 Â° Oe) must weight. Must be mature and full of sugar-rich berries produced, which were stored prior to pressing, at least three months on straw, reeds, or hung on strings or the like. According to a legislative amendment in 2002, but the grapes can be pressed already after two months when a must weight is reached by at least 30 Â° KMW. For non-achievement of the Most degrees can (must) the wine will be marketed as a quality wine.
Winery : A term for wine produced independently of QualitĂ¤tssufe from grapes harvested exclusively in Austria, and Austria. The wine may be used only by 31 December of the year following the harvest to retailers and to 31 March of the following year will be sold to the consumer. Winery is also the common name for tavern in Austria.
Storm : Protected Designation of a partially fermented grape must. The actual alcoholic strength at least 1.0% and can reach up to 10 vol%.
Mixed Set and Mixed Set : Mixed sentence is within the EU origin as protected traditional term and only for Austria alone approved.
Other wine labels and wine styles: Selection , Ausstich , Classic (Classical) Epiphany wine , Injected , Leopoldiwein , JubilĂ¤umswein , Virgin Wine (First Reading), Martini, Wine , altar wine , Nikolowein , Primus (wine) (First) Reserve (Grand Reserve Grande Reserve) Selection (Selection) Stefani wine , Tradition and Christmas wine each may be used differently by type, under certain conditions.
In Austria, important institutions, bodies, authorities and research institutes that are associated with perceived viticulture research, organizing, controlling, journalistic or educational functions including BKI (Federal Wine-inspection), Klosterneuburg Viticulture Institute , AWMB (Viticulture Institute in Styria) and Austria Wine Academy .