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There were vineyards in this area already in the Ancient wines , Cultivated as a Thracian tribes to the north and south of the Balkan mountains wild vines and a strong cult in honor of the god Dionysus operated. At the time of Roman Empire Wine Thrace a popular export to Greece, Sicily, Asia Minor and Egypt. These ancient experiences were later taken over by the Slavs and Bulgars. In the Middle Ages, the wine reached by the monasteries, with their wide-scale vineyards at its peak. In 1393, the Bulgarian kingdom was conquered by the Turks and remained close to 500 years to 1878 under Islamic rule. It was only permitted the production of table grapes. The Alcohol ban led to a stoppage of wine. This was a large scale only after the First World War and resumed only by small wine producers operate with indigenous varieties. After the Second World War, a collective system was introduced, founded schools and vineyards planted European grape varieties. In the 1960s, Bulgaria has developed into a major wine exporter. After the political upheaval in 1990, the state wine monopoly Vinprom disbanded and privatized most production companies. Since 2007 Bulgaria is a full member of the European Union .
There are five wine regions, which are divided into subregions. To the north lies Dunavska ravnina ( Danube ) with 30% of the vineyard. The region on the border with Romania and Serbia is primarily for its red wines from Gamza, Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon is known. Control areas are Lozitza Iran, Lyaskovetz, Novo Selo, Pavlikeni, Rousse, Suhindol, Svishtov and Yantra. The lowland region Thrakiiska (Thracian level) is located south of the border to Turkey and covers 35% of the vineyard. She is best known for its red wines from Mavrud, Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon. Control areas are Assenovgrad Iran, Brestnik, Oriachovitza, Plovdiv, Sakar and Stambolovo. To the east lies Tschernomorski (Black Sea) with 30% of the vineyard. It is for white wines from Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc, Traminer and Riesling known. Control areas are Jujen Briag Iran, Khan Krum, Kralevo, Novi Pazar, Preslav and Varna. The region Jolianka Na goiter (Struma Valley) is located in the southwest on the border with Greece and Macedonia . She is best known for the variety of red wine from Melnik. Control areas are Iran and Harsovo Melnik. The mountainous region Podbalkanski (Rosental Balkans or edge) is in the center of the country. She is known for white wines from Chardonnay and Misket. Control of Iran are Karlovo, Rozova Dolina (Rosental), and Slaviantzi Sungurlare.
For the most part has a temperate continental climate with hot summers, warm and dry autumns and cold winters. Only in the Struma there is a Mediterranean climate. The conditions are excellent for growing grapes. About 60% to 40% red wine and white grape varieties are grown. In 2007 were produced by 93 300 hectares only 1.68 million hectoliters of wine. The reason for this small quantity are produced on a large scale distillates and Table grape . In addition, the vines are planted with a wide margin. Almost half of the wine is exported. Bulgaria's new varieties are very popular, for example Misket Dunavski , Misket Plevenski , Misket Trakijski , Misket Varnenski , Orfej , Ruby , Ruen and Storgoziya . In terms of volume but they play no major role. The Varieties (2004):
Grape Color Synonyms or names in Bulgaria Hectare % Pamid red Piros Szlanka, Rosioara 28 000 27.0 Merlot red - 14 000 13.6 Cabernet Sauvignon red - 13 000 12.6 Rkatsiteli white Baiyu, Rkatsiteli 12 000 12.4 Dimiat white Dymiat 9500 9.8 Shiroka Melniska Losa red Melnik 4800 4.9 Misket Cherven white Misket Tcherven, Red Misket 4700 4.8 Muscat Ottonel white Misket Ottonel (Bulgarian) 3600 3.7 Chardonnay white - 2400 2.5 Ugni Blanc white Trebbiano , Trebbiano Toscano 2300 2.4 Aligot√© white - - - Cinsaut red Senso, Senzo (Bulgarian) - - Feteasca Alba white Le√°nyka , M√§dchentraube - - Gamza red Gimza, Gomza, Gymza, Kadarka - - Mavrud red Mavroudi, Mavroudi Voulgarias - - Muscat Blanc white Tamyanka, Tamianka (Bulgarian) - - Pinot Noir red - - - Riesling white - - - Saperavi red Saperavi Patara - - Sauvignon Blanc white - - - Traminer white Gewurztraminer, Mala Dinka (Bulgarian) - - Welschriesling white Welschrizling (Bulgarian) - -
A wine law was first introduced in 1978, leveled in 2000 and revised in preparation for EU accession in 2004 one more time. For the Wine Country (Regionalno Vino) with a geographical indication shall be recognized by the EU, two major regions of Danube plain (northern part of the country) and Thracian plain (southern part of the country). In quality wine (vino Katschestveno) there are two stages:
Declared Geographical Origin (DGO): The quality wines with geographic origin come from one of the 47 geographical areas. The name is not listed on the DGO bottle label. DGO wines and control wines Iran may include the same geographical location, leading to occasional confusion. An example of the wines "Assenovgrad Mavrud" (DGO) and "Control Assenovgrad Mavrud Iran" are.
Control Iran: The highest level of quality covers, modeled on the French appellation system with guaranteed quality wines and controlled sources. These are defined in the vineyards DGO areas. Are there rules regarding each wine grape varieties, farming practices and winemaking techniques. Alcohol, acid and sugar content can be controlled and the wine after organoleptically Examination by a government body released. On the label are, and grape / wine type, and the text "Control of Iran" quoted. The control Iran wines are Assenovgrad Mavrud, Harsovo Melnik, Jujen Briag rose, Khan Krum Traminer, Treasure of Kralevo, Liaskovetz Aligote, Lozitza Cabernet, Novi Pazar, Chardonnay, Novo Selo Gamza, Oriachovitza Cabernet-Merlot, Pavlikeni Gamza, Preslav Chardonnay, Russian River Side White, Rozovata Misket Dolina, Sakar Merlot, South Coast Ros√©, Merlot Stambolovo, Suhindol Gamza, Sungulare Misket, Svishtov cabernet sauvignon, chardonnay and Varna Yantra Valley Cabernet Sauvignon.
When the quality of wines (DGO and Control Iran), various additional designations may be used. The term "Special Reserve" applies to wines with at least one year of maturation. The term "Special Selection" applies to wines with at least two years of maturation. The term "Barik" (barrels) applies to wines that are aged in barrels for up to 500 liters. The term "Premium Oak" or "first placing in an oak cask" is the use of new oak barrels.
Some of the producers and wineries, just put the name of the vineyard area (do not get confused). Known manufacturers Assenovgrad, Belvedere Group (Domaine Katerina, Domaine Menarda Stara Zagora, Sakar, Oriachovitza), Bessa Valley, Black Sea Gold, Domaine Boyar (Blue Ridge, Korten), Burgas, Damianitza, Haskovo, Magura Winery, Miroglio, Peshtera Group Pomorie, Rousse, Stork Nest Estates (formerly Svishtov), ‚Äč‚ÄčStambolovo, Suhindol, Targovishte, Todoroff, Vinex Slavyantzi, Vini Sliven and Yambol.