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The vineyards in the eastern Austrian province of Burgenland wine garden filled according to 2009 survey a total of 13 842 hectares of vineyards. The Burgenland but also represents a growing area that is geographically divided into four wine regions. Together with the State of Lower Austria , it is Austria's largest wine growing region Wine Country Austria . The wine has been here for at least two and a half millennia of great importance, as evidenced by the saying "Extra Pannoniam non it vita, si est vita, non est ita" is underlined (Outside of Pannonia you can not live, if you can live, then not so as here). The place Zagersdorf is next Stillfried in the Lower Austrian wine district of the oldest wine-growing communities in Austria, as in a Celtic grave mounds from the Hallstatt period about 700 BC, the grape seeds Kulturrebe Vitis vinifera discovered.
In the first Century BC, the Romans penetrated to the Danube and founded the province of Pannonia. A new wine culture was formed by the removal of the vine-planting ban by Emperor Marcus Aurelius Probus Marcus Aurelius (232-282). At that time, stood to the Roman legionaries per capita per day three measures of wine. In 433 AD, Attila conquered the province of Pannonia. The Great Migration had a very negative and only Emperor Charlemagne (742-814) a reconstruction led among others by the introduction of "Franconian varieties" one. Pour wine from their own vineyards in the wine tavern (wine taverns) to be allowed, great revival.
The greatest merit is the Cistercian attributable to the swampy, wooded area drained and cleared. In 1216 they built in Heiligenkreuz (Lower Austria), already 99 vineyards. From here they began to Lake Neusiedl around to Klostermarienberg (at Oberpullendorf) and around St. Gotthard to create more wine cultures. From Burgundy, the Pinot Gris (Pinot Gris) is introduced and also planted the Riesling. In the 16th Century had reached its greatest extent, the vineyards and the wine had become the main source of income. The Hungarian Queen Mary (1505-1558) granted the Burgenland wine growers big privileges. They gave the wines Rust , Jois and Neusiedl am See the right to their wine barrels with the initial letter "R", "G" (for Geusz) and "N" to indicate. The famous Rust outbreak was done at this time and the Tokay equated. Burgenland in the 16th and 17 Century, particularly of the many Turkish invasions-affected. From the time of the first Turkish siege of Vienna in 1529, the legend comes from the "Purbacher Turks" (see Neusiedlersee Hill Country ).
Despite all the turmoil of war, epidemics, adverse weather and other vicissitudes of the period was of 16 to 18 Century, the absolute heyday of the Burgenland wine, which were predominantly white wines produced at this time. Large quantities were shipped to the imperial Hofkeller in Vienna and the most popular wine of Rust was awarded the honorary title of "Vinum imperatorum - vinorum imperator". At that time there were in Burgenland four quality classes: Vinum Nobile (noble wine, outbreak wine from dried berries of the grape Furmint), Vinum Bonum (quality wine made from Furmint, Augst and Muscat), Vinum Mediocre (medium quality) and Vinum Cibale (table wine).
In 1622 was Count Nicholas EsterhĂˇzy (1583-1645) of Emperor Ferdinand II (1578-1637) and the gentlemen Forchtenstein Eisenstadt assigned as a fief. This noble family encouraged viticulture and wine business and became the largest landowner overall in Austria. At the beginning of the 19th Century was the golden age passed. Triggered by the middle of the 18th Silesian Napoleonic Wars and the beginning of the 19th Century, and crop failures are large vineyards had closed down and turned into farmland. In the second half of the 19th Century struck in the Burgenland Phylloxera to. Gained great achievements in the fight from Paul Vetter Gols .
The area is characterized by Pannonian-continental climate, climate regulating effect of the 230-acre Lake and relatively long vegetation periods of up to 250 days. Due to the excellent climatic conditions and pressed premium quality wines. Renowned winemakers and winegrowers' cooperatives communities are as BlaufrĂ¤nkischland , Pannobile , Pannonian dance , Renowned wineries of Burgenland (WARC) Weinidylle SĂĽdburgenland and wine cellar Neckenmarkt . The Burgenland wine region is considered the Austria (Districtus Austria Controllatus) defined. The 2009 survey revealed the following vineyard vines (in brackets 1999):
* Mittelburgenland - 2118 hectares (1,845 acres) with Mittelburgenland DAC
* Lake Neusiedl - 7649 hectares (7534 acres) with Leithaberg DAC
* Neusiedlersee Hill Country - 3576 hectares (3678 acres) with Leithaberg DAC
* SĂĽdburgenland - 499 acres (437 hectares) with Eisenberg DAC
The Blend is based on the annual survey conducted in 2009 Weingarten. Compared to the last survey in 1999, resulting in some significant changes. The proportion of red varieties has increased from 39% to 55% of the long established Austrian trend is most come into play. The Chardonnay (Morillon) and Pinot Blanc 1999 were not recorded together. For some varieties, there were enormous changes (see table). The total vineyard area increased only slightly by 346 hectares or 2.6%. As the dominant grape variety GrĂĽner Veltliner and Zweigelt by BlaufrĂ¤nkisch was replaced:
Variety - Austrian
in Austria, officially permitted
BlaufrĂ¤nkisch - red 3053 22.1 2493 Zweigelt Blauer Zweigelt, Rotburger red 2649 19.1 1875 Green Veltliner WeiĂźgipfler white 1473 10.6 2736 Welschriesling - white 1422 10.3 1974 Chardonnay Morillon - Not used in Burgenland white 566 4.1 ? White Burgundy Pinot Blanc , Klevner , White Burgundy white 551 4.0 ? St. Laurent - red 406 2.9 185 Merlot - red 395 2.9 46 MĂĽller-Thurgau Rivaner white 376 2.7 797 Cabernet Sauvignon - red 363 2.6 189 Pinot Noir Pinot Noir , Blue SpĂ¤tb. Red, pink. red 325 2.4 181 Muscat Ottonel - white 264 1.9 323 Neuburger - white 219 1.6 440 Bouvier - white 204 1.5 337 Sauvignon Blanc Muskat-Sylvaner white 198 1.4 55 Scheurebe Seedling 88 white 191 1.4 291 Blue Burger - red 163 1.2 178 White Riesling Riesling , Rhine Riesling white 151 1.1 163 Traminer Gewurztraminer, T. Red, T. Yellow white 138 1.0 188 Mixed Set - white 133 1.0 392 Syrah Shiraz red 113 0.8 0 Pinot Gris Pinot Gris , Pinot Grigio white 95 0.7 175 Goldburger - white 80 0.6 206 Roesler - red 71 0.5 0 Muscatel Muscat, Red M. white 70 0.5 12 Cabernet Franc - red 34 0.2 18 Mixed Set - red 25 0.2 57 Early Roter Veltliner Malmsey white 21 0.2 67 Blue Portugal - red 19 0.1 44 JubilĂ¤umsrebe - white 9 0.1 25 Furmint - white 8 0.1 0.8 Silvaner GrĂĽner Sylvaner white 2 - 4.5 Roter Veltliner - white A - 3.2 Zierfandler SpĂ¤trot white A - 0.7 Rotgipfler - white 0 - 1.8 Blue Wildbacher - red 0 - 3.1 And. white varieties - white 51 0.4 24 And. red varieties - red A - 14 WHITE VARIETIES 6227 45 8213 RED VARIETIES 7615 55 5283 TOTAL 13 842 100 13 496