Was at Gades (Cadiz) in today's Spanish-born Lucius Junius Moderatus columella probably born around the turn of time. About the exact dates and also about his life is relatively little known. He served as an officer of the Roman army in Syria. Columella is considered one of the most important Roman authors about the wine. He was also a contemporary of the wine-writing authors Pliny the Elder (23-79 AD), whether they knew each other and influenced each other, is not known. His most famous work "De re rustica" (from the rural affairs), he wrote in an older age 60-65 AD, and dubbed it the same way as the work of the Carthaginian Mago (C. 500 BC), whom he also quotes extensively. In addition, he also quotes the revered him (70-19 BC), whose work "Georgics."
This will complete remaining work "De re rustica" consists of 12 books that have appeared probable one. The third, fourth and twelfth book are devoted to viticulture and winemaking. He is clearly out of it's own observations and experiences. Every detail he describes methods, such as the planting density of vines (two steps back), finishing , training system (connect to a head-high pile of chestnut wood with willow branches), the vegetative propagation by Offshoot , pruning , varietal choice, depending on the type soil , Yield (20 Amphora by Jugerum = about 20 to 30 hl / ha), vintage , winemaking and vinegar .
Columella takes him a total of 58 well-known grape to. A particularly fruitful and durable, he also mentioned by Pliny describes the Biturica (Columella are called but Balisca). In addition, mentions a albuelis Vitis , often referred to as the ancestor Elbling is suspected. The cost and effort is also a topic treated in detail. He describes, for example, that could cut a man in a January day and 100 piles deteriorate. In order to get along with as few workers, he proposes the planting of vines that are maturing differently. Precisely define which properties need to have the slaves and expressly advises on those that have practiced the finer work, how they fit for a city. Because they were accustomed to doing nothing, circus, dice, cook shop, and brothels.
Ideal is a slave who was accustomed to the hard land of child labor. According to their skill, he distinguishes the slaves in PflÃ¼ger (aratores), wine (vinitores) and domestic servants (medianisti). The following remarks he criticized the widespread practice in his time of Flavoring : "We believe that the best wine is the one that can be aged without preservatives. It should not be mixed with it, which could obscure its natural flavor. For the exzellenteste wine is the one who prepares for its natural qualities enjoyment. "An older work called" De arboribus "(over the trees), where the vine is described, is unfortunately still only partly preserved. See also Ancient varieties and Ancient wines .