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The island in the eastern Mediterranean is politically the Republic of Cyprus, the international law covers the entire island, with 9,251 km Â². De facto, it consists only of the larger southern part of 5384 km Â², for the smaller north or 3,355 square kilometers is the (not recognized by most states) regime, Turkish Republic of Cyprus. Two British military bases, with 255 km Â² are subject to a relic of colonial Britain. The distance to the south coast of Turkey is around 70, the east coast of the Greek island of Rhodes around 400 and the mainland of Greece more than 800 kilometers. The vineyard dates back to the third millennium BC. According to the mythology of the Greek god of wine preferred Dionysus for his drinking wines from this Island. The foam-born goddess of love Aphrodite emerged from the "Roman Rock," the waves of the sea and went to the Akamas peninsula lying north-west of the country. The Phoenicia and Greeks founded as early as the Ancient wines , the tradition of sweet wines. Floor mosaics with wine motifs in the harbor town of Paphos on the southwest coast bear witness to this ancient wine culture.
After the third crusade in 1191, the island came into possession of the Hospitallers, the Knights Templar and later again in 1312 from the St. John. The Order managed to come so-called (goods with vineyards). Their headquarters was the "Grand Commandery" designated remaining Colossi Castle, which is the famous wine region, and sweet wine Commandaria was named. At that time the wine was delivered to many European royal families. From 1489 to 1571 belonged to the Republic of Cyprus Venice . The Ottoman rule from 1571 to 1878 and the related ban alcohol resulted in a total decline of the wine culture. Under the British administration from 1878 to 1960 there was another boom. The Commandaria and similar formerly known as "Cyprus sherry" designated wines evolved into export racers.
From the early 1990s, the wine by young, well-educated descendants of old-established families, and some investors of the Cyprus wine was invented, so to speak. This new generation could not and did not hear the old legends, and they began to Middle Eastern tradition and way of life to connect with Western dynamics. In the villages of the Troodos Mountains, modern, well equipped winery was built. Small vineyards are in the arid scrublands of wine a perfect ecosystem that is largely without artificial irrigation and manages without chemical pesticides. The phylloxera has never come to the island, so the vines are rooted in the soil ungrafted. The most important indigenous varieties are the white Xynisteri , and the red Maratheftico , Mavro and Opthalmo . From the 1970s the European varieties are Cabernet Sauvignon, Carignan, Chardonnay, Grenache, Mourvedre, introduced Riesling, Syrah and Riesling.
The vineyards lie mostly in the southwest of the island in the southern foothills of the Troodos mountain range in 250 to 1,500 meters above sea level, making it the highest altitude vineyard are in Europe. Pitsilia and the northern half of Commandaria indicate volcanic, the other areas, especially on KalkgesteinsbÃ¶den. It dominates typical Mediterranean climate with mild winters and hot summers and low rainfall. In 2007 the vineyards covered 15 300 hectares, of which 169 000 hectoliters of wine were produced. The majority of the grape harvest, however, serves for the production of table grape and Raisins . The Cypriots were formerly no great wine connoisseur, but have mainly beer , brandy and ouzo consumed. However, it is a trend reversal in favor of wine seen.
Only with the accession of Cyprus to the EU is a source-oriented classification model was introduced on the French model, which was effective in 2006. There are five areas for so-called OEOP wines with denomination of origin (defined OEOP = Oinos Eleghomenis Onomasias Proelefsis). These wines must come from vineyards that are higher than 600 meters above sea level. You must be 85% from local varieties such as Xynisteri (white), and Maratheftiko, Mavro or ophthalmic (all red) are pressed. Furthermore, the proportion may be the variety Mavro, depending on growing region 60 and a maximum of 70%. The vinification and bottling must take place in the OEOP areas. The origin for the production of wine country meets the political subdivision of the Republic of Cyprus with the four districts of Larnaca, Limassol, Nicosia and Paphos. Here the growers free design is possible, especially regarding the use of international grape varieties. The five-OEOP areas are:
Commandaria : The area includes 14 municipalities in the southern foothills of the Troodos mountains north of Limassol. It was defined as the first in 1980.
Krasohoria Lemesou: The area includes 20 municipalities in the southern foothills of the Troodos mountains north of Limassol. Two sub-areas are Afames and Laona.
Akamas Laona: The area covers six towns on the coast in the northwest of the island north of the harbor town of Paphos. The Akamas peninsula is myth-prone because of their particular plant richness under nature protection.
Pitsilia: The largest area includes 32 villages on the eastern edge of the Troodos Mountains above Commandaria and is also known for its fruit trees and rose cultures known.
Vouni Panayia Ambelitis: The double-field lies in the central west of the island on the western edge of the Troodos mountain range northeast of Paphos.
The majority of the production attributable to the four large companies Etko , Keo, Loel and SODAP located near Limassol in the south of the island. They produce mainly for export, mainly wine for industrial processing (eg, sangria and vermouth ), concentrated grape must or rectified concentrated (eg for British wine ) and fortified wines. To her property also includes a number of regional wineries. The more than 50 private wineries produce about 15% of the amount (and rising) with increasingly high standards. These are Aes Ambelis, Amforeas (Kolios) Ampelokipeftiki, Antoniades, Ayia Mavri, Bolita, Chrisorogiatissa, Constantinou Distillery, Costas N. Erimoudes, Ezousa, Fikardos, Gaia, Hadjiantonas, Harma, Krelan, Kyperounta, Kykkos Monastery, Lagria, Linos, Menardos, Nelion, Nicolaides, Nikolettino, Vouni Panayias, Shoufas, Tsalapatis, Tsangarides, Tsiakkas, Vardalis, Vasa, Vasilikon, Vlassides , Yiaskouris, Zambartas, Zenon.