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 Tschechien

Czech Republic

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In 1993, the former state Czechoslovakia , the two independent states and the Czech Republic formed. The wine has a common history, to the Celts goes back. In the 3rd Century AD under the emperor Marcus Aurelius penetrated Probus Marcus Aurelius before (232-282) Roman legionnaires to Moravia, and laid in the area today Znojemská (Znojmo) of vineyards. The first golden age of wine arrived in the 9th Century at the time of the Great Moravian Empire. As in many other monasteries, especially the transhipment sites also practiced a positive effect, because they needed altar wine for liturgical celebrations. It did show that especially in 1190, founded Premonstratensian monastery Louka near Znojmo. This order was strongly influenced by the ideals of the Cistercians and operate like this wine professional. During the Middle Ages there were to many cities and monasteries flourishing vineyards. By the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648) there was a large decline. The mildew and the first occurring in 1890 Satov phylloxera did the rest

In the 20th Century was a reconstruction of newly planted vines. In 2007, of 17,700 hectares 821 000 hectoliters of wine. There are 377 wine-growing communities with about 18,000 vine growers, often with very small places. The Czech Republic is divided into two historical landscapes of Bohemia (Cechy) and Moravia (Morava), which also gave the two wine-growing areas (a total of six sub-areas) the name. Each year, about half a million hectoliters of wine produced. The prevailing continental climate with warm and dry growing season and a dry, cool autumn. Two-thirds are white wines and red wines produced one-third.

Grape Synonyms in the Czech Republic Color %
Müller-Thurgau - white 11.2
Veltliner (Grüner Veltliner) Veltlínské Zelené white 11.0
St. Laurent Svatovavřinecké red 8.8
Welschriesling Ryzlink Vlassky white 8.4
Riesling (Rhine Riesling Ryzlink rýnský white 7.1
Blaufränkisch Frankovka red 7.0
Pinot Blanc (Pinot Bianco) Rulandské Bilé white 4.7
Zweigelt Zweigeltrebe red 4.7
Sauvignon Blanc Sauvignon white 4.5
Chardonnay - white 4.0
Pinot Noir (Pinot Noir) Rulandské Modré red 3.9
Blue Portugal Modrý Portugal red 3.9
Pinot Gris (Pinot Gris) Rulandské Sede white 3.7
Traminer (Gewürztraminer or Red) Tramín Cervený white 2.9
Neuburger Neuburské white 2.3
Moravian Muscat Moravian Muscat (MOPR) white 1.8
Early Roter Veltliner Veltlínské Cervene Rane white 1.7
André - red 1.5
Cabernet Sauvignon - red 1.3
Cabernet Moravia - red 0.8
Pálava - white 0.6
Sylvaner (Silvaner) Sylvánské Zelené white 0.6
Irsai Oliver Irsay Oliver white 0.4
Aurelius - white 0.3
Muscat Ottonel Muscat Ottonel white 0.3
Neronet - red 0.2
Kerner - white 0.1

In recent decades, numerous Czech new varieties were created. The main breeding objectives were mostly resistant to Mushrooms and Frost . These are Agni , André , Ariana , Aurelius , Cabernet Moravia , Devin , Lena , Laurot , Moravian Muscat , Malverina , Neronet , Pálava , Rubinet , Veritas and Vrboska .

Named after the river March (Morava) named viticultural area of Moravia (Morava) located in the Southeast. The vineyards comprise 96% of Czech vineyards and are located between Brno (Brno) and the Austrian border at the Danube's tributaries Svraka, Morava (March) and Dyje (Thaya). The first vineyards were created here by Roman legionnaires. To the greatest prosperity in the Middle Ages, Emperor Charles IV made (1316-1378) deserves, who ordered the creation of vineyards. The Moravian wine region is divided geologically into the western part of the foothills of the Bohemian massif and the eastern part of the Western Carpathians. The Moravian wine field is divided into four subsections:

The subregion includes Mikulovská 4737 hectares on the southern slopes of the Pavlov Hills (Palava) in 30 municipalities. The most important are Bavory, Brod nad Dyjí, Dolni Dunajovice, Klentnice, Lednice, Mikulov, Napajedly, Novosedly, Pavlov, Perná, Popice, Pouzdoany, Sedlec u Mikulova, Strachotín and (with the seat of the central Wine Centre) Valtice. It is the warmest region. The calcareous soils consist of clay, shale and loess. The best wines and sparkling wines are vinified from Riesling, Chardonnay, Pinot Blanc and Muller-Thurgau. The subdivision Slovácká (Moravian Slovakia) includes 4514 hectares in 115 villages. Known Blatnice, Breclav, Bzenec, Dolni Bijanovice are Čejkovice, Kyjov, Hluk, Moravian Nova Ves, Mutenice, Napajedly, Petrov, Podluzi, Polešovice, Stráznice and Uherske Hradiste. In Čejkovice founded in 1232, the Knights Templar a fortress with extensive cellars. Thrive in this area, particularly the white varieties Riesling, Pinot Blanc and Pinot Gris, as well as the red varieties Gamay, Zweigelt and Cabernet grown in Moravia Moravian Ves. Two well-known wines are Bzenecká Lipka from Bzenec and Blatnicky Rohac from Blatnice.

The largest sub-sector Velkopavlovická includes 5143 hectares of vines in 75 municipalities. The main Brno (Brno) are Cejkovice, Klobouky near Brno, Nemcicky, Hustopece, Velké Pavlovice, Velké Bílovice and Zidlochovice. The magnesium-rich soils consist of loam and loess. Here grow great red wines from Blue Portugal and Gamay, and white wines from Riesling, Traminer, Neuburger and Moravian Muscat. In the field of viticulture Znojemská reached at the time of the Great Moravian Empire, a climax, as planting Prince Svatopluk "Magnus" (d. 894) vines from Austria and Hungary did. The town of Znojmo has always been an important wine-producing center. Under the city's many wine cellar with long, labyrinthine corridors are created. The vineyard covers 3462 hectares in 91 municipalities. The most important are Dolní Kounice, Hnanice, Hodonice, Horní Dunajovice, Ivancice, Miroslav Novy Saldorf, Satov, Syrovice, Tasovice, Vrbovec and Znojmo. The floors are made of gravel with clay and loess. Most varieties are Riesling, Müller-Thurgau, Riesling, Gamay and St. Laurent. A well-known operation Znovín Znojmo .

The region of Bohemia, is named after the Celtic tribe of Boii and covers the west of the country about two thirds of the Czech land. His heyday of Bohemian wine growing in the reign of Emperor Rudolf II (1552-1612), then there were some 3,500 hectares of vineyard. Today's wine-growing region of Bohemia (Cechy) with 631 hectares comprises only one-sixth, which makes up less than 4% of Czech vineyards. The vineyards lie on slopes in the vicinity of the rivers Berounka Labe (Elbe) and Vltava ears, most of them north of the capital Praha (Prague). The area is divided into two areas:

The sub-area comprises 288 hectares Litoměřická in 29 communities. The most important are Litomerice, cider Chrámce, Mostecko, Lovosice Velké Žernoseky and Vrbice. In the Middle Ages, Litomerice to Prague's second largest wine-growing town of Bohemia. In 1251 left the Cistercian Žernoseky in large wine cellar and started digging vineyards. Today, this produces mainly white wines from Riesling, Pinot Gris, Pinot Blanc and Muller-Thurgau, and red wines from Saint Laurent and Blue Portugal. The subregion includes Melnická 343 hectares in 37 municipalities. The best known are Karlstejn (with a research station for viticulture), Melník, Kutna Hora, Kralupy nad Vltavou and Praha. The vineyards lie on calcareous subsoil layers of marl, which is part of alluvial deposits of clay and sand. These are particularly well suited for the red varieties Pinot Noir, Blue Portugal and St. Laurent. The most common variety is the Muller-Thurgau.

The new Czech classification system is anchored in the wine law of 2004. The wine categories are similar to those in Austria and Germany and based on the weight Most of the grapes (1 NM-degree = 1 kg of sugar per 100 liters of must). The table wine produced from grapes with a minimum must weight of 11 °. It may not matter, community, year or grade is given. In most cases, it is lighter wines between 7 and 11% alcohol by volume content. In the land of wine grapes, the must weight at least 14 ° exhibit. He must, however, in contrast to table wine to be designated on the label with domain names, year and variety.

The grapes for quality wines = Jakostní Víno must come from qualified vineyards and require at least 15 ° must weight. The maximum yield is 12 tons / hectare. The production must be made in that vineyard, the grapes were also harvested. The wine must meet the quality criteria and the State of Agriculture and Food Inspection Authority (SZPI) classified. A high quality variety wine may be made ​​from grapes, grape must or mash produces a maximum of three as a quality wine varieties permitted. A mark of quality wine is produced from blends of grapes, mash, must or a blend of quality wines by the formulas remain unchanged.

The grapes for quality wine with attribute = s Jakostní Víno Prívlastkem must meet all quality criteria and come from a wine growing region. Origin, variety and sugar content must have been reviewed by the SZPI. The sugar content of must may not be increased. The wine may be produced from a maximum of three varieties. With a share of at least 15% of the varieties may be mentioned on the label sequence. The rating levels are Cabinet = Kabinetní Víno (19 °) dry, late harvest = Pozdní SBER (21 °, dry or semi-dry), selection = Výber z Hroznu (24 °, higher alcohol or residual sugar content), Beerenauslese = Vyber z bobulí (27 °, semisweet or sweet), ice = Ledove Víno (27 °, read on to. minus 7 ° C), straw wine = Slámové Vino (27 ° to. 3 months of storage on reed or straw) and Trockenbeerenauslese = Vyber z cibéb (noble rotten or overripe berries with at least 32 °).

2004, the new wine category Qualitätes-origin certificate using the acronym VOC (Víno originální Certifikace) was introduced. Such wines have at least the criteria for quality wine match, but they are not subject to a government classification as above. Rather, the classification is performed by a wine cooperative, whose members are allowed to produce this wine. The right to the award of the VOC designation is granted under strict conditions of the respective wine cooperative by the Czech Agriculture Ministry. A wine with a certificate of origin must be typical of each region and each grape variety.
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