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This term vineyard (agriculture), the supply of Nutrients through various means of mineral and organic way to a deficiency in Soil type compensate. The name derives from "manure" (dung of herbivores, especially hoofed animals) from. This is the oldest form of fertilizer was used at least six millennia ago. A selective fertilization began in the 18th Century with wood ash, lime and marl. By 1840, showed the famous German chemist Justus Liebig (1803-1873) to the growth-promoting effect of potassium, phosphorus and nitrogen. He promoted the use of nitrogen-containing phosphoric acid and guano (bird droppings, now plays no role). Liebig wrote in his masterpiece, "Organic Chemistry in its Application to Agriculture and Physiology ': The soil must regain its full extent, what is it used by crops. In fact, while the annual growth cycle in the vineyard from the soil large quantities of nutrients. Losses due to leaching (particularly on light soils of boron, potassium and magnesium), Erosion (Particularly soil erosion on slopes), gaseous loss (especially nitrogen) and setting (the binding of nutrients into plant available forms do not), as well as the grape harvest. A vine with about 200 Leaf produced per year, about half a kilo of dry matter (shoots, leaves, grapes).
The Vine is in contrast to other plants less high demands on soil fertility. It is a phenomenon that there are many famous locations with top-quality wines, which often have a relatively poor soil. A certain nutrient stress can actually be very positive. This does not mean that automatically increases with increasing barrenness of the soil quality of the wine. The emphasis is on optimal equalization, too little (deficiency) is as negative as too much (over-fertilization). The necessary measures must be checked fertilization by soil testing usually every five to six years. This typically involves the determination of inventories Boron , Potassium , Calcium (Lime), Magnesium , Phosphorus and Nitrogen , And the pH value and Humus . For some, such as nitrogen, much shorter intervals are meaningful. In most countries, or within the EU, there are statutory regulations for fertilizing agricultural land, including viniculture. Various analytical methods are Scoring , EUF method and Nmin-method .
By type of bond is divided into organic and mineral fertilizers. Although often mistakenly only mineral fertilizers are referred to as "fertilizer", are also produced organic synthesis. When mineral (inorganic) fertilizers, the elements are mostly in the form of salts such as nitrates (the nitric acid), phosphates (phosphoric acid) and sulphates (the sulfuric acid) in front. The basic minerals extracted by mining are usually quite complex chemically altered. Only small quantities are used as unrefined as potash and lime. A distinction is made according to the form (solid manure and liquid manure) and its effects (fast acting, long-time custodian). There is staight fertilizer (only one nutrient, such as nitrogen) and multi-nutrient fertilizers (for example, combination of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium). The uptake of mineral fertilizer takes place mainly through the roots. However, this is also possible through the leaves and the plant could theoretically feed it completely. Therefore, the so-called foliar spray in gaining increasing importance. Nitrogen and magnesium, for example, can thus be fed in lesser amount than in the treatment of soil. A special type of fertilization is the fertigation (irrigation-fertilization), the nutrients in combination with an artificial Irrigation are fed.
The organic fertilizers are usually animal or vegetable origin, but are also prepared as for example urea synthetically. Often these are bound to carbon. Most of them are agricultural waste like blood meal, fish meal, manure (urine and feces), Urea (KohlensÃ¤urediamid), horn shavings, manure, sewage sludge, bone meal, Compost (Decayed plant remains), Rebholz, Rhizinusschrot, manure and Marc . The green manure by sowing Legumes (Legumes) with nitrogen-poor soils, or Greening are among them. The organic fertilizer is the formation of Humus , The main dietary source of Microorganisms . This release pflanzenaufnehmbare nutrients from organic matter. By organic manure is also a protection against Erosion achieved, which in Slope important. Organic fertilizers work long term and can be washed out more slowly than mineral.
In the last third of the 20th Century came the mineral fertilizers increasingly assailed by the critics. If excessive use of these agents is a risk that the over-fertilized soil, and thus the soil fauna is adversely affected, which in turn loads the Yield and is the grape quality. In extreme cases it can be used to kill the plants by plasmolysis (change in the cell substance) can occur. Extensive use is for a variety of Nutrients . Manure or Compost even contain almost all of them and even in a fairly balanced. But has a more or less pure Boron , Calcium , Copper , Iron , Potassium , Magnesium , Manganese , Molybdenum , Phosphorus , Sulfur or Zinc , Then usually come only mineral fertilizers in question. For this course, you can use much more targeted. In long-term field experiments it was found that combined organic and mineral fertilizers bring very good results and can be ideal. See the topic under Biodynamic viticulture and Ã–kologischer Weinbau .