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The Greek wine history began as it were with a fling of the chief god Zeus with the beautiful Semele (daughter of Harmonia, Goddess of concord), of the birth of Dionysus led, the god of wine. The Ancient wines Greece is one of the "cradles of European wine culture". As early as the Mycenaean civilization in the 16th century BC (Mycenae = northeastern Peloponnese) there was viticulture, whereupon discovered Amphora point. Wine was an important part of the Drinking culture of everyday life. The Greeks are among the very first in which wine to prominence as a valuable commodity.

The poet Homer (8th century. V. Chr.) Reported in the Iliad from wine as house drink the heroes described. Furthermore, the historian concerned with wine and viticulture Hesiod (~ 750-680 BC v..), The philosopher Aristotle (384-322 BC v..), The naturalist Theophrastus (370-287 BC v..) And the physician Galen (129-216). On their Kolonialisierungszügen in the Mediterranean, the Greeks brought their vines and viticulture to Sicily , after a Oinotria designated southern Italy, southern France and the Black Sea. Many methods have been of the Celts accepted and Romans. The Roman poet Virgil described the diversity of grape varieties: "It would be easier, in Greece the sand grains to count as the different varieties."

The famous port city of Monemvasia in the Peloponnese was the late Middle Ages under the rule of Venice a unused widely hub for Sweet wine from the Aegean to the wine its importance, only on most islands he continued in a relatively small volume. Only some time after gained independence in 1830 and the pushing back of the Turkish influence began to turn professional with viticulture to employ as an economic factor and reactivated numerous vineyards.

Among the pioneers were also some German, such as Gustav Clauss, of the still existing huge winery in 1861 Achaia Clauss reasoned. By the end of the 19th century, the vineyard has doubled, but when in 1898 the phylloxera eventually reached Greece, much was nullified again. Rebuilding took place slowly because the demand for Greek wine was greatly decreased. Experienced a renaissance of Greek wine-growing until the end of military dictatorship in 1974 and Greece joined the European Union in the year 1981st

Greece has a very high mountain share despite its strong maritime character. The ground limestone, granite and volcanic rock and the prevailing in the wine regions Mediterranean climate with short mild winters and humid hot and dry summers have a favorable effect on the wine. The often dry autumns provide mostly fully ripe grapes with relatively low acidity. The majority of wine-growing areas located near the coast. These benefit from the moderating sea breezes acting. To give the wine more structure, vineyards are deliberately created at high altitudes. The vines can through the extended vegetation cycle build more extract and achieve higher acid values. Another effective method to slow the maturity date is in the conscious creation of vineyards on northern slopes. Viticulture is often operated on a small scale, in Greece on the mainland and also on all the major islands. The wine regions / areas:

* Limnos
* Paros
* Rhodes
* Samos
* Santorini

* Metsovo
* Zitsa

Ionian Islands
* Kefalonia
* Corfu
* Zakynthos

* Archanes
* Daphne
* Peza
* Sitia

* Amynteon
* Côtes de Meliton (Playies Melitona)
* Goumenissa
* Naoussa

* Mantinia
* Nemea
* Patras

* Anchialos
* Fair Nikola
* Rapsani


Central Greece
* Attica

In 2007 were of 116,800 hectares 3.511 million hectoliters of wine produced (see in this respect a statistic under Wine production quantities ). There are approximately 300, autochthonous varieties, foreign are increasingly cultivated. Approximately half of the vines is for the production of grape Table and Raisins used. The most important variety for the Korinthiaki which occupies 44,000 hectares. Only less than 10% accounted for by quality wines. Even today, the wine is characterized by unusual and original flavors. Around 60% are alcoholic white wines. At 90%, the wines are fermented dry. To 85% are autochthonous varieties grown. The Grape 2010 includes only wine varieties with around 50% of the vineyard (Statistics Kym Kym Anderson ):
grape color Synonyms / Greek name hectare
Savatiano White Aspro, Dobraina Aspri, Kountoura Aspri 9,920
Roditi white / pink Alepou Roditis, Arilogos Roditis, Kanellato 8,495
Agiorgitiko red Aghiorghitico, Aghiorgitiko, Mavro Nemeas 2,905
Kotsifali red Kotrifali, Kotsiphali, Kotzifali 2,330
Muscat Blanc / Muscatel White Moschato Aspro, Moschoudi 2,162
Xinomavro red Mavro Naoussis, Pipoliko, Xinogaltso 1,971
romeiko red Loïssima, Romeïco, romeiko Mavro 1,597
Cabernet Sauvignon red - 1,550
Moschomavro red Moschato Mavro, Moschogaltso, Xinogaltso 1,428
Merlot red - 1,248
Liatiko red Aleatiko 1,211
Moschofilero white / pink Fileri, Moschophilero 1,111
Assyrtiko White Assirtico, Assyrtico, Asyrtico 902
Mandilaria red Amorghiano, Dombrena Mavri, Kontoura 885
Athiri Aspro White Athiri, Athiri Lefko 748
Garnacha Tinta red Grenache Noir 645
Syrah red Shiraz 641
Chardonnay White - 586
Vilana White Velana 579
Mavrud red Mavrouda, Mavroudi 520
Monemvasia (Variety) White Monemvassia 481
Robola White Robola Aspri 465
Limnio red Mavro Limnio 372
Mavrodaphne red Mavrodafni 345
Trebbiano Toscano White - 297
Fokiano red Fokiana, Fokiano Kokkino 262
Sauvignon Blanc White - 256
Vertzami red Lefkada, Lefkas 239
Debina White Dempina, Ntempina, Zitsa 239
Opsimo Edessis White Karatsova Naousis, Opsimos Lefko 228
Malagouzia White Malagouzia 182
Negoska red Mavro Goumenissas, Negkoska 143
Tsaoussi White Tsaousiko, Tsaousia, Tsaousis 135
Asprouda White Asproudi 113
Avgoustiatis red Avgoustiates 108
Kakotrygis White Kako Tryghi 103
Goustolidi White Augoustelidi 68
Alicante Bouschet Henri red - 56
Krassato red Krasata, Krasato 52
Cinsault red - 43
Thrapsathiri White Bechleri, Begleri, Beghleri, Dafnato 31
Cabernet Franc red - 23
Pamid red Pamidi, Pamitis 22
Tempranillo red - 19
Stavroto red Ampelakiotiko, Ampelakiotiko Mavro 11
Zakynthino White Zachara, Zacharo, Zakintino 10
Plyto White Plito, ploto, Pluto 7
Agiomavritiko red - ?
Aidini White Aidani, Aidani Lefko ?
Aidani Mavro red Mavraïdano ?
Araklinos red Araclinos, Raklino ?
Areti red - ?
Athiri Mavro red Mavratheri ?
Chondromavro red Chondromavrouda ?
Gaidouria White Gaidouricha, Gaidouriha ?
Kakotrygis White Kako Tryghi, Kakotrygis Kokkino ?
Kartsiotis red Gouchevica, Kartsotes ?
Katsakoulias red Gyftokoritho, Kaltsakouli ?
Kolliniatiko red Bergiotiko, Eugeniko ?
Korithi Aspro White Korithi Lefko, Korithi Leyko ?
Kotsifoliatiko red - ?
Koutsoumpeli White Koutsoubeli, Koutsoumbeli ?
Mavro red Cipro Nero, Korithi Mavro, Kritiko Mavro ?
Mavrodiates red - ?
Mavro Kalavritino red Kalavritino Mavro, Mavro Kalavryta ?
Mavroliatis red - ?
Mavro fair Nikola red Fair Nikola Mavro ?
Mavrotragano red - ?
Mavroudi Arachovis red Arachovis ?
Nigrikiotiko red - ?
Petrokoritho Red White Petrokoritho Mavro, Petrokoritho Lefko ?
Petroulianos White Petrolanos, Petrolianos ?
Platani White Platania, Platanos ?
Potamissi White Aspropotamisio ?
Potamissi Mavro red - ?
Priknadi White Prekiadi, Prekna ?
Ritino red Aretino ?
Roditi Lefkos White Kolokythas Lefkos ?
Rokaniaris White - ?
Sklava White Sklaba, Sklabes, Sklabos ?
Skopelitiko red Scopelitico, Skopelitis ?
Skylopnichtis red Kasteliotiko, Mavros Arkadias ?
Sykiotis red Chiotis, Kiotes, Kiotis ?
Syriki red Kseriki, Seriki, Syrike, Xerichi ?
Tachtas White Kourou Tachtas, Kour-Tachtas ?
Theiako Mavro red - ?
Tourkopoula White Rhoditis Kokkinos, Roditis Kokkinos ?
Vaftra red Baphtra, Vaphtra, Vapsa, Vautra ?
Vidiano White Abidano, Abidiano, Abudiano ?
Vlachiko red Blachiko, Blachos, Vlahico ?
Voudomato red Voidomata, Voidomatis, Voidomatis ?
Vradiano red Bradyano, Vradinia ?
Zalovitiko red Zalobitiko ?

The preference for resinated wine, especially the Retsina with around 10% of wine production, is an ancient Greek tradition. On almost all Aegean islands sweet, partly fortified dessert wines are produced, the best known being the Samos from the island of the same name. Also known are the flavored with aniseed brandy Ouzo , and the herbs in secret mixture (including rose petals) flavored brandy Metaxa . Major producers are Achaia Clauss , Biblia Chora , Boutari , Calligas , Cambas , Domaine Carras , Gaia , Hatzimichalis , Katsaros , Kechri , Kourtakis , Malamatina , Mercouri , Oenoforos , Papaïoannou , Parparoussis , Pavlidis , Skouras , Spiropoulos , Tsantali und Tselepos . More are listed at the fields.

After the French model of the Ministry of Agriculture and the Wine Institute controlled origin designations for the best growing areas have been introduced in the period from 1971 to 1972nd The guidelines are modeled on the AOC: maximum yields per hectare, certain Grape with a clear preference for autochthonous varieties, minimum must weight, aging provisions and sensory tests. A Enrich the must with sugar is allowed in principle, but may increase the alcohol content to a maximum of 2.5% vol. A Sweetening must during fermentation are added up to a maximum of 25% of the sugar contained in the must before and. Also a Acidification is allowed and is often practiced due to the rather low-acid grapes. Controls are exercised by KEPO (Central Committee for the Protection of wine production).

Wine Categories: In August 2009, the EU wine market organization was valid with fundamental changes to the wine designations and grades for all member countries. The following levels of quality, which OPAP, OPE and OKP can still be used as a traditional designations alternative (see also detailed under Quality System ):

* Oinos (formerly Epitrapezios Oinos or table wine ) = Wine
* PGE = Topikos Oinos or Wine Country
* POP (Prostatevomenis Onomasias Proelefsis) or alternatively OPAP, OPE, OKP = Quality wine

Oinos: blended wines from different growing areas without designation of origin.

PGE (Prostatevomenis Geografikis Endixis): There are currently around 100 defined Country Vineyards, a well-known area is Agioritikos .

OPAP / ΟΠΑΠ (Onomasia Proelefseos Anoteras Piotitos / Ονομασία Προέλευσης Ανωτέρας Ποιότητας): For these quality wines with "designation of origin higher quality" maximum yield, minimum alcohol content, aging in barrel and bottle include prescribed. The OPAP wines with a red, extending over the cork strip in

OPE / ΟΠΕ (Onomasia Proelefseos Eleghomeni / Ονομασία Προέλευσης Ελεγχόμενη): This quality wines with "designation of origin" are subject to the same conditions as OPAP wines. In addition, there are higher requirements with respect to the sugar content . This is Sweet wine from the historic areas of Kefalonia , Limnos , Patras , Rhodes and Samos declared. Either there are gekelterte with alcohol fortified "naturally sweet" or from dried grapes' natural sweet wines "that a Trockenbeerenauslese match. The OPE wines are marked with a blue, extending over the cork band.

OKP / ΟκΠ (Onomasia Kata Paradosi / Ονομασία κατά παράδοση = Traditional Appellation): A special predicate for origin protected, produced with traditional methods Kelter wines. There are only two of them, the retsina and the Verdea .

Kava (Cava): Name (dt cellar or in spirit "cellared".) For a longer stored wine of high quality. White wines have two years supported his (of which at least 6 months in barrel and six months in the bottle), red wines three years supported his (of which at least 6 months in new oak or 1 year in used oak and 2 years in the bottle).

Reserve (Epilegmenos) and Grande Reserve (Idika Epilegmenos): applies only for quality wines permitted (OPAP and OPE) Reserve for whites with two years (for 6 months in barrels and 6 months in bottle.) And reds with three years of storage. (same minimum). Grande reserve applies to white wines with at least three years (for. 1 year in barrels and 1 year in bottle) and for red wines with at least four years of storage (for. 2 years in barrel and 2 years in the bottle) ,
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