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The supply of water in the right quantity and at the optimum time for the growth of Vine and the future of wine and a tremendously important prerequisite for Photosynthesis indispensable. Naturally this is done by the (Rain), the required amount is (depending on the climate ) is usually 500-750 mm annually. Under ideal soil conditions but also larger precipitation amounts are absorbed. In the area of Portuguese Vinho Verde , for example, the amount of precipitation is 1,500 millimeters. In addition to the amount of time also plays during the vegetation cycle play an important role.
The important thing is the "right" amount of water, too little moisture can be Water stress Lead (also called water stress), in turn, excessive rain occurs excessive vegetation (leaf growth) on. Especially when the vintage is undesirable and rain through the grape juice dilution to poor quality wine. In an extreme case, there is the so-called moisture stress, when the berries swell and even burst and thereby oxidize the juice to ferment, or in extreme cases may even already. Also, by too much moisture in the attack by microorganisms, such as mushrooms or Bacteria promoted. The moisture of the soil, by the tensiometer can be measured.
Crucial to a good water balance is the soil type , which is ideally loose and deep, so that the roots spread far and dig deep into the soil and thus easily Nutrients and water can be absorbed. Very important to strike a balance between water storage capacity and water discharge . Waterlogging particularly after growth in the spring for the roots and causes very harmful during the bloom in poor fruit set and Coulure . A good water removal can be greening , covering the soil with Mulch or be supported by artificial drainage (drainage). The second important criterion is the water storage capacity in the subsoil. These are the top of the sediment or bedrock lying mostly dense and low-lying layers.
The lower floor is below the criss-crossed by the main roots of the layer with nutrients. Ideally suited as clay, because it holds the moisture in the soil, the (Evaporation of water and thus dehydration) counteracts and also passes the water only to a limited extent, and dose to the roots. Unlike rain but dew contributes to water supply to the vine when not much. Rather, tau promotes the development of fungi - usually this is indeed undesirable ( mildew , mold Blue , Black red ), but for the production of sweet wines by botrytis (noble rot) is also an advantage. The latter is (the prime example is the French area of Sauternes ) often near Waters before.
Artificial watering or irrigation of vineyards were common in ancient times, as in ancient Egypt provide, this is normal. Artificial irrigation is as widely in the countries of Egypt , Azerbaijan , Australia , Chile , Israel , California , Peru and South Africa applied. In the EU, this is in accordance with applicable regulations prohibited (except for young vines) with the exception of rules and regulations was one of the entry of Spain and Portugal (where it was previously widely used).
Artificial irrigation is increasing, especially to the income and is in the production of table grape , Raisins or bulk wine usual. One common form is the so-called drip irrigation, leakage from the target set in the ground hoses installed in adjustable time intervals of perforated sites in all vines water drops. This technique is also known as fertigation (irrigation-fertilization) application. A second form is the flooding is conducted in water from a canal between the vine rows and seeps. Specific forms of irrigation are partial root zone drying (partial root drying out) and regulated deficit irrigation (regulated deficit irrigation). See also Drought and xerophilic .