Translations into other languages are available for subscribers only.
In the usual wine-growing plant or a plant for the rearing of grafted rootstocks similar to a nursery. Frequently, a finishing operation is connected. An important basis for breeding or "enrollment" are mild to moderate, to Humus rich soils that allow rapid rooting. Requirement is especially an adequate supply of Potassium (Potassium salts) and Magnesium . The plant has little frost, warm and sheltered, and free of virus transmitting Nematodes Be (nematodes). Only by vegetative propagation ensures that the newly formed vines exactly the same genes and thus have properties such as the Ursprungsrebe. A Generative propagation of planting and breeding of grape seeds is therefore not in question. Basis for future vine are two components, namely the scion (top part) and the base and rootstock (bottom). Both are mounted on separate areas and only after finishing , advancing and subsequent enrollment in a reproductive capable cuttings .
The scions are long officially recognized by several years in a vineyard and watched it on their viticultural characteristics tested positive clones obtained (clonal selection). The best act of which have special requirements for admission as a so-called basic seed (nurseries). Of these, about 80 centimeters long rods separated one year. The cut is made in late December to mid January, to prevent damage by frost buds. The rods must be at least seven, with long internodes with some such as in the BlaufrÃ¤nkisch (Lviv), Trollinger or Dornfelder five graftable Eye exhibit. Mutterrebe can be obtained from a 50 scions. They are hermetically packaged for further use in cold rooms with 1 to 2 degrees Celsius in plastic sheeting to 100 or 200 mounted to the reserve substances as primarily Carbohydrates preserve the wood. For finishing the rods are then cut into small pieces, each with one eye. Remain above the eye must be a stub with at least 1.5 centimeters in length, under the eye with a pin remains at least 5 centimeters in length.
The different base and rootstock varieties are as targeted with certain characteristics and certain soil type bred by crosses, which, due to the essential phylloxera ever American vines are involved. In a nursery, not only the desired variety that is possibly also the desired clone type, but also for the vineyard optimally suitable underlay ordered, with which it has been refined (eg Riesling clone 64-183 G - FA Geisenheim with the base 5BB). The documents are a one-year wood, which is produced in so-called vines. As they warm to grow, require little frost-sensitive sites, they are mostly produced in northern Italy or southern France. They are either brought up without support on the ground or by Greiner-decker shear helical pile education, so that 8-10 rods arise, each several meters in length. The harvest takes place in January and February, while the rods are cut off just above the head. The length must be divisible by 40, but must be at least 120 centimeters. The cut on the final length of 30 centimeters is then just before the finish. The lower section is about 1.5 to 2 centimeters below a node (node). At this interface form it turned out the roots. All eyes are cut out, what is called the iris. From a vine can reach 60 to 80 documents can be harvested.
Immediately after finishing done to protect them from drying out a waxing of the cuttings, including the finishing point with liquid, hot wax finish. This also contains substances for inhibition of Botrytis and promotion of callus formation. Thereafter, each 500 to 600 vines in Vortreibkisten packed in plastic that are filled with wet peat until before the graft. It is with sand or Perlite filled. Then, in bright, heated rooms, mostly glass houses, the advancing (pre) of vines in the boxes, causing the formation of Callus (Scar tissue) promoted the eye to shoot and placed first root tips are formed. The date depends on the subsequent enrollment in the northern hemisphere, this is mostly in the last ten days of April. The duration is between two and three weeks. This requires a uniform temperature, high Humidity and good ventilation. The young shoots should be as short as possible while developing. They are regularly sprayed with protected against Botrytis. This is followed by hardening, where the vines are slowly within one week of normal temperature conditions adapted.
The enrollment begins after the late frost around mid-May. The former practice of "grave process" was from the late 1970s, replaced by the so-called "film process". By means of a laying machine is raised by a slightly curved embankment, over which a plastic film is pulled. This approximately 75 centimeters wide, black-colored soil, and thus a higher heat effecting film of polyethylene is, the edges covered with earth, so the wind does not attack surface is offered. After the sheets are rolled over with thorns, with a bespickten wheel, so that every 6 to 8 inches, holes punched into it. Through these holes the cuttings are placed about 10 inches deep in the earth. Unlike the earlier grave process takes place during film process an unsolicited uprooting from the scion. After the greening measures are nursing as loosening the soil, cut foliage and preventive treatment with Fungicides against false and Wettable sulfur against real Mildew required. During the official visit in the summer, the vines are reviewed as a prerequisite for the recognition of varietal purity.
After the Leaf fall November is the Ausschulung the vines. Before the shoots are cut about 15 inches and dug the vines, the roots are cut up to 25 centimeters. Now all the vines especially regarding optimum adhesion of scion and support by manual compression and rotation sample be tested. It may not come to spring the Kallusringes or a cleft in the graft union. To marketing and it has been planted in the spring, the vines are stored in refrigerated rooms. According to one in 1992 adopted EU Directive is mandatory for all within the EU put on the market vines a "plant passport", are in the country among other producers, growers, botanical name, precious and base of rice varieties. As an alternative to nursery vines will also be so-called generated. Instead of the enrollment in the open air is the air conditioning process with the potted vines. See also Breeding .