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The roots of the Vine can be found in drill up to 15 meters deep and the bottom of many substances. You can not take in solid form. The weathering converts the materials into tiny particles that can only be added to an aqueous solution of the roots. The ground water and its constituents is called the soil solution. A good vineyard land is characterized by good water storage capacity and optimum water discharge (without waterlogging) from. In most European wine-growing areas is left to the water supply of natural, because artificial Irrigation prohibited for quality wines in the rule. The nutrients are in the best possible quantity to the quality of the wine has a decisive influence. This "right mix" is one of the secrets of a "good vineyard land" or ideal soil type , and explains why vines from a specific location or a special terroir wines and provide an immediately lying near Weingarten not.
Among the main nutrients include the elements carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and Oxygen (O). They are in the form of carbon dioxide (CO 2) from the air, as well as Water (H 2 O) taken from the soil. Are also taken from the ground, the required large quantities of other major nutrients (K), (Ca), Magnesium (Mg), (P), sulfur (S) and Nitrogen (N), and only in minor amounts required trace elements or micronutrients Boron (B), Chlorine (Cl), Iron (Fe), Copper (Cu), Manganese (Mn), Molybdenum (Mo) and Zinc (Zn). With the exception of nitrogen are all substances in the course of the weathering of rocks from the rock-forming minerals have been released and are therefore referred to as minerals.
But only some of the substances contained in soil is available for the vine. You can only be taken from her when they are in the form of certain ions (positively charged atoms) in the soil solution. The majority of the nutrients embedded in minerals or organic molecules. This form to be specified but they are not accommodated. Only by Microorganisms in the soil, the organic compounds are degraded, releasing the nutrients in liquid form. The vine then the individual substances have very specific tasks such as assistance in Photosynthesis , structure and growth of the plant tissue and formation of the sugar. Many of these minerals and compounds are now in the wine and give it character and quality. They are summarized as total extract called. Through site-specific fertilization are eliminated in the vineyard soil nutrient deficiencies and losses compensated. See the numerous methods in the vineyard care .