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Extremely important factor for the yield and quality of a wine. Would be cut without the Vine proliferate uncontrollably and from the buds of each last year Shoots annually to build new floors, which can spread tiers and on, while the lower floors woody. As the grapes are formed only on one-year wood, pruning ensures the balance (physiological equilibrium) between the yield (generative growth) and growth of the vine (vegetative growth), without too much is that old, unproductive wood formed. The choice of test depends on the type soil (fertile, infertile), the training system (single stick, wire frame, pergola), the climate (wet-dry), the (Fertility, susceptibility to Coulure ), The Base and rootstock , As well as specific local conditions from. The ideal time for winter pruning is the Hibernation (Juice rest) in the northern hemisphere on frost-free days in early spring from January to February, on the south side of the July to August. After that begins with the Shoot the annual Vegetation cycle of the vine again anew. There are various methods of pruning, this wine is available in many countries have legal provisions for the production of quality wines. They may vary from wine region or in smaller regions (appellations) may be different, so for example in the Champagne four different pruning-approved forms.
The most elaborate form, the manual cutting of the shoots with the Vine knife or with the secateurs. Here are the so-called winter pruning in January at the latest by the end of March 80 to 90% from the year-long wood and cut away to a maximum of two rods fruit. But this can take place depending on the weather, even very early in December, which is then called Advent section. It is important that the number of Eye (Bud) is not too high, to the vine later not to overload by excessive feathering. The number of buds on the vine untreated depends on the vigor and even after the grape variety. Vigorous leaves a floor to a larger number of eyes. Is the stock vigorous weak (many, but only thin and short shoots), so stay next time fewer eyes than before. A good measure is the Timber weight , One leaves per kilogram of wood cut 30 eyes. Depending on the number per shoot the eyes Shoots named: Tail (8 to 15), Strecker (4 to 7) and Tap (1 to 3). To achieve an optimal balance between quality and possible income (just under 50 hl / ha), a rule of thumb, vines per mÂ² stand space 6-8 eyes (also 4 to 10 are called) to leave. From the one-year wood untreated eyes go out in the spring of new flowering shoots.
Another option is the uniform pruning of all Shoots , Which also can be done by machine. This is at best only average grades. The so-called minimum cut means that only a very limited or no manual winter pruning takes place. This minimal pruning is practiced mainly in Australia for certain varieties. After the Bloom June is the summer average, while the leaves are usually machine-cut to form walls, laterally projecting shoots are cut off, which culminated erect shoots that grow the length of the main stem by cutting the Shoots cut terminated. The early removal of Leaf in the grape zone is no longer recommended, because the grapes are still green by the effective leaf shadow in front Sunburn can be protected (see also Defoliation ). One can do this then before harvesting in order to simplify the cutting of the grapes and to Botrytis prevent. The former practice of side shoots, which means the removal of Greed drive (which form en masse, especially after the peaks of the main stem) is a modern wine is no longer recommended in principle, since studies have shown that a higher leaf mass with well-exposed greed shoots of grape quality through higher sugar storage is very beneficial. However, it must be removed early on in this case, the mean grapes.
The green grapes hanging on average over the period July or August alternatively be performed, if available for the desired quality of wine grapes too high an amount. This work is called Weingarten Thin out or green crop (Fr. vendange vert). A portion of the grapes are still green, before the Veraison (Color) cut away, leaving less grapes and berries from the leaves of the vine with Nutrients and sugars must be provided so that a total of more formed and extract more sugar will be stored per cluster. This reduction in yield has thus improves the quality of the remaining grapes. The so-called physiological maturity is influenced by positive. The winter buds ripen earlier, the one-year wood into wood in time, thereby increasing the overall hardiness of the shoots. If by vine diseases, Hail , frost , bloom damage or the dreaded pest Grape The curtain was already reduced, may account for the thinning. Especially for Table grape There is a special technique of Curl To obtain earlier flowering and larger berries. See also under care Weingarten .