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Name for dried grapes, which is derived from the Old French term "Roisin" (grape). They can be distinguished in raisins (large berries with thick skins and seeds), currants (small, dark, seedless Berries) and sultanas (light-colored seedless grapes). Raisins are among the oldest preserved human food. Especially with the campaigns they have been used by many Arab and Asian nations like as nutritious and long-life food. The general Hannibal (247-183 BC) Carthage reportedly has in his train to Rome via the Alps mainly provisioned his troops with it. Writings found in Egypt for the production of evidence already in 3,000 BC and also in the Bible they are often mentioned. Aristotle (384-322 BC) reported that black currants were seedless. And in ancient Rome was called a currant wine Passum prepared. Absolutely required for the production of raisins is primarily a suitable climate with high temperatures, long hours of sunshine and low rainfall and low humidity. Primarily for the varieties Sultana (Sultanina, Thompson Seedless, kishmish) korinthiaki (Black Corinth, Zante Currant) and Muscat of Alexandria used. Requirement are seedless Berries, therefore, these are mainly Table grape .
The grapes are designed after the harvest outside on wooden racks or cement or clay plates. After about two weeks, the grapes are turned. Some of them are also suitable solutions (vegetable oil and potash) dipped to accelerate the drying process. In ancient times it is a mixture of wood ash and olive oil was in common use. In Australia and California, a special technique is used when the grapes are cut at the base, stuck on the floor and sprayed with a dry emulsion. High quality raisins have a maximum of 13% moisture, uniform in color (golden brown to purple-brown) and size and free of pollution. Grapes are in the order in wine (80%), then raisins and only in third place for Table grape used. The largest raisin producer in the world are (in order) the United States (especially California), Turkey, Greece, Australia, Iran and Afghanistan. The global rate is about one million tons annually. See also Ancient wines and Raisin Wine .