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 Schweiz

Schweiz

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   German Switzerland Three-Lakes Region   Geneva
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Statistics
Klassifiz. Producer: 60
Wines tasted: 67

The Romans planted around the time of the vines in the Basel area and Windisch and reasoned viticulture. In the 6th century AD, monks of the monastery from Burgundy St. Maurice at Aigle in Vaud and cultivated vineyards. Mid-8th century vineyards in Chur Rhine and on Lake Constance is. As elsewhere in Europe of viticulture in the Middle Ages by the Cistercian cultivated. These founded the monastery Hautcrêt Palézieux and laid in 1142 the first terraced vineyard on Lake Geneva in the canton of Vaud to. The area Dézaley still considered one of the best appellations in Switzerland. From the beginning of the Confederation of the three cantons of Schwyz, Uri and Unterwalden in 1291 to the 18th century, wine production increased steadily. Around 1850, included the vines of approximately 35,000 hectares more than twice as today. In the 19th century the viticulture suffered a decline by foreign competition, and by the phylloxera and the Mildew , which Switzerland also arrived as one of the last European countries. After World War II there was another boom.

Switzerland is (after Albania ) the gebirgreichste country in Europe and the Alps with their foothills also characterize strong viticulture. The vineyards are located mainly at the beginning of the three major river valleys in the West Rhône, Rhine in the north and Po in the south. In these valleys and along the many lakes there are many vineyards on glacial moraines with mostly terraced steep slopes to 70% slope. The case of the municipality of Visperterminen lying vineyard Riebe in altitude of 1,100 meters is the highest altitude vineyard in Central Europe. Especially in the Southern Alps with the largest wine-growing region Wallis there is much sunshine, but relatively low rainfall. Only which is in the southern Ticino is very rainy. Linguistically, Switzerland is in the three wine-growing regions of Western Switzerland (French-speaking Switzerland with a three-quarters of the vineyard area), Eastern (German Switzerland - the "land of red table wines" and the smallest area) divided and Ticino in the south (Italian Switzerland). For this reason, German, Italian and French influences are reflected in the diverse wine culture.

Slightly more than half of the total show red varieties. The most common are Pinot Noir (Pinot Noir) and Gamay, only in Italian Switzerland (Ticino) clearly dominates with over 80% Merlot. In the white varieties Chasselas prevails clearly before (here and Dorin, Fendant and Perlan called), followed by Müller-Thurgau (Riesling x Sylvaner here) - was named the Swiss viticulture pioneer Dr. Hermann Hermann Müller-Thurgau (1850-1927 ) a monument. In eastern Switzerland (German-speaking Switzerland), there is almost a monoculture, here dominates the red grape Pinot Noir with some 70% of the area. The planted after the phylloxera disaster Americano account for about 15% share and specifically in the Ticino for grape Table and Grappa used. As Old plants the numerous old are autochthonous grape varieties referred to, which are mainly cultivated in the canton of Valais. The Grape 2010 (ex Kym Kym Anderson ):
grape Synonyms or name in Switzerland color hectare
Pinot Noir Pinot Noir, Clevner, Chlävner red 4,402
Chasselas Dorin , Fendant , Chasselas, Perlan White 4,013
Gamay Gamay Noir red 1,521
Merlot - red 1,028
Müller-Thurgau Riesling Sylvaner x White 493
Gamaret - red 380
Chardonnay - White 321
Cornalin Cornalin d'Aoste, Humagne Rouge red 244
Silvaner Gros Rhin, Johannisberg, Sylvaner White 241
Pinot Gris Malvoisie , Malvoisie du Valais White 216
Garanoir - red 203
Syrah - red 181
Arvine Petite Arvine White 154
Sauvignon Blanc - White 134
Rouge du Pays Cornalin du Valais red 116
Diolinoir - red 112
Pinot Blanc - White 105
Traminer
Gewürztraminer
Heida, Païen, Savagnin Blanc
Heidarot
White
83
49
Cabernet Sauvignon - red 63
Cabernet Franc - red 54
Muscat Blanc / Muscatel Muscat du Valais White 49
Marsanne Ermitage Blanc, Marsanne Blanche White 48
Amigne Amique White 43
regent - red 41
Viognier - White 31
Humagne Blanche Humagne Blanc White 30
Doral - White 27
Dark Fields - red 24
Räuschling Big Räuschling, Züri (ch) vine White 23
Aligoté - White 23
Cabernet Dorsa - red 22
Dornfelder - red 21
Cabernet Law - red 19
Ancellotta - red 19
Kerner - White 19
Zweigelt - red 15
Galotta - red 13
Bondola Bondola Nera, Brieger red 13
Solaris - White 13
Maréchal Foch - red 13
Dakapo - red 13
Riesling Petit Rhin White 12
John - White 11
Cot Côt, Malbec red 10
Carmi Noir - red 10
Charmont - White 10
Léon Millot Millot red 9
Seyval Blanc - White 8th
Robert Plant = Gamay - red 6
Chenin Blanc - White 6
Sauvignon Gris - White 5
Scheurebe - White 5
Chambourcin - red 3
completer Big Lafnetscha, Malanserrebe, Zürirebe White 3
Millot-Foch - red 2
VB 32-7 - White 2
Baco Noir - red 1
Landal Noir - red 1
Birstaler nutmeg Muscat de la Birse, VB 86-6 White ?
Cabernet Blanc - White ?
Cabernet Colonjes - red ?
Cabertin - red ?
Foundling (mut. Müller-Thurgau) - White ?
Lafnetscha Blanching, Gros Gouais White ?
Pinotin - red ?
RAC 3209 - red ?
Reselle - White ?
Riesel - White ?
VB 91-26-4 - red ?

In 2012 the vineyards covered 15,000 hectares, were generated from the 1.004 million hectoliters of wine (see in this respect a global statistics under Wine production quantities ). Switzerland produces excellent wines in many variants. The only reason they are outside the country may not be as well known is that they are almost exclusively consumed in the country and even twice as much has to be imported. In most cases, the wines are by the community (many have AOC status) named, in which they are generated. There are 26 political cantons, in 17 of which there is a wine-growing. Many do not own, wine legal regulation, therefore not every canton has its own Appellation. The six wine regions are the cantons of Geneva, Ticino, Vaud and Valais, and the German-speaking Switzerland (17 cantons) and the cantonal border Three-Lakes. The wine cantons or wine regions:
CANTON
WINE REGION (WR)
CANTON / WINE REGION
French / Italian
GEOGRAPHICAL
REGION
HA
Aargau Argovie, Argovia German-speaking Switzerland 395
Baselland Bâle-Campagne, Basilea Campagna German-speaking Switzerland 80
Bern Berne, Berna German-speaking Switzerland 250
German Switzerland (WR) Suisse alémanique, Svizzera tedesca German-speaking Switzerland 2,600
Three-Lakes Region (WR) Pays des Trois-Lacs Western Switzerland 945
Fribourg (Switzerland) Fribourg, Friburgo Western Switzerland 120
Geneva (WR) Genève, Ginevra Western Switzerland 1,340
Grisons Grisons, Grigioni German-speaking Switzerland 384
Jura (Switzerland) Jura, Giura Western Switzerland 9.5
Lucerne Lucerne, Lucerna German-speaking Switzerland 40
Neuchatel Neuchâtel, Neuchâtel Western Switzerland 605
Nidwalden Nidwald, Nidvaldo German-speaking Switzerland 0.2
Suburbs Schaffhouse, Sciaffusa German-speaking Switzerland 500
Schwyz Schwytz, Svitto German-speaking Switzerland 32
St. Gallen St-Gall, San Gallo German-speaking Switzerland 220
Ticino (WR) Ticino, Ticino Italian Switzerland 1,028
Thurgau Thurgovie, Turgovia German-speaking Switzerland 274
Vaud (WR) Vaud, Vaud Western Switzerland 3,882
Wallis (WR) Valais, Vallese Western Switzerland 5,236
Zurich Zurich, Zurigo German-speaking Switzerland 644

1990 in canton Valais a quality wine hierarchy introduced the first Swiss-growing region. Formerly it was largely left to the winery, what information he gives on the label. Usually this community and / or or vine or were branded wine . The Swiss wine legislation provides for three categories of wine before:

Subcategory I are " Quality wine with designation of origin" to understand which are designated by the name of a canton or a geographical area of a canton. The cantons may extend under certain conditions individual areas using the cantonal borders. The individual cantons lay down provisions on the territorial limits, authorized vine varieties, minimum must content per grape, maximum yields per vine, growing methods, winemaking techniques, and a system for sensory and Analytical Review firmly as prerequisite for marketing.

The Most weight must varieties of white wine at least 15.2 (Western Switzerland) and 15.8 ° Brix (German-speaking Switzerland, Ital. Switzerland), as well as to reach at least 17 ° Brix for red varieties. The yield may in white varieties maximum of 1.4 kg / m² (1.2 ital. Switzerland) and not exceed 1.2 kg / m² (1.0 ital. Switzerland) for red wines. Only for Category I wines following expressions shall be allowed: Late vintage (vendange tardive, Vendemmia tardiva), Selection (Sélection, Selezione), Beerenauslese (Sélection de grains nobles), Trockenbeerenauslese , Icewine (Vin de glace), Beerliwein , Flétri ( Flétri sur souche) Oeil de perdrix (Rosé), straw wine (Passerillé, Sforzato) Süßdruck (Pressé doux) - also of local wines, Village (s) and Vin des glaciers (glacier wine).

Although nearly 90% of all Swiss wines have the AOC status or could have that name in Switzerland currently has a rather low priority. Many cantons do not have any specific system, but they are satisfied the above general federal regulation. In some cantons, such as Vaud and Valais , there is the even higher level Grand Cru , which is used for privileged documents. The canton of Vaud is the special Terravin in gold and platinum for great wines.

The category II includes Wine Country , which are designated by the name of the country or part of the country with greater extension than the one canton. Must weights must reach at least 14.4 ° Brix and red varieties at least 15,2 ° Brix for white varieties. The income must not exceed 1.8 kg / m² and not exceed 1.6 kg / m² for red wines with white varieties.

The Category III as the lowest quality level are simple wines ( Table wine ), from grapes harvested in Switzerland grapes originate and reach their Mostgewichte for white varieties at least 13.6 ° Brix, and for red varieties at least 14,4 ° Brix.
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