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In the taxonomy system, the plant of the subclass Rosidae (rose plants), the order Vitale (vine-like), the family Vitaceae (grape family) and of the genus Vitis (grapevine) is assigned (see also under Vines classification ). It is a creeper that twined up originally on trees. The plant can reach enormous proportions and old, in extreme cases to over 300 years. The morphology is divided into three principal organs root, stem (stem with shoots) and Leaf . The entire root system is underground, most of it in a depth of 20 to 50 centimeters. Thus, the vine is anchored in the floor with all the necessities such as Water and Nutrients supplied.
In many countries of the New World is an artificial irrigation practice in the EU, this is a license. At today by finishing the usual form of the root functions are grafted by the Base and rootstock met. The ideal soil type in the vineyard has a good balance between water storage capacity and water discharge , so that, at best, the roots are forced to spread far and deep into the earth. In loose soil, the pasterns penetrate up to 15 meters depth. The lateral roots spread mainly in the upper layers and take over the thin fibrous roots (root hairs) of water and nutrients. The Tauwurzeln (also day or aerial roots) spread just below the surface.
Above the ground first is the "old" wood, which are from the finishing grafted scion formed trunk and branching Cordon (leg). On the trunk (and below ground) may result from Adventivknospe the water shoots form (unwanted side shoots). On the sides are the two-year rods and cones, at the nodes in the axillary, the Eye is formed (axillary buds). From the eyes of the winter "last year" wood form in the following spring new green summer shoots, on which are responsible for Photosynthesis indispensable leaf form. From the summer buds in the leaf axils on the side can drive Greed greed develop grapes. The May to July also invested in the leaf axles winter buds of mature and become woody through October. As a hardy "Winter Eyes" survive the winter dormant until they shoot in spring.
Basal stem standing on winter buds often develop only green fruitless shoots with up to 40 sheets, while the second to fifth eye fertile shoots arise with outstanding inflorescences (inflorescences), from which, after the bloom of the grapes ripen. Only from the buds of the "two year" spring wood fruit-bearing rods, so that the winter pruning , and the number of engines on the untreated eyes yield determined for the next year. Crucial for the formation of inflorescences in the next year, the growth and maturity profile during the growing season (climate, weather, etc.) in the previous year when the winter buds are formed with the flowering plants. This means that the yield (quantity of grapes) by the number and size of flower and the number of individual flowers (from which then the individual berries) was influenced to some extent already in the previous year.
Opposite to the leaves form at the nodes Tendrils (fixing members). Depending on the variety, it takes three to six years, according to a new plantation, the first yield, the Virgin Reading , is possible. The vine is now used in Rule 30 to 40 years for the wine and then cleared. However, it can be much older, some over 200 years old canes are mostly preserved as domestic stocks to historic buildings. The oldest still-standing vine yield is located in the gardens of the Tudor palace "Hampton Court Palace" in London, it was planted in 1769 (see Old Vines ). Initially increases with age, the wine quality. However, vines and over-age, so that should take place after a few decades, a rejuvenation pruning. As revenues decline slowly with age, old vines are now usually only used on top of quality-oriented wineries.
The criteria for the suitability of a region for viticulture as WeinbauwÃ¼rdigkeit known. The vine is very adaptable and will move to extreme environmental conditions such as heat, Drought and frost one. He is down to minus 18 Â° C viable, especially hardy varieties bred even have a resistance to minus 30 Â° C. The ideal daytime temperature is in good supply of nutrients and water, and optimal exposure (at best in slope ) between 23 and 25 Â° C. The sun-drenched days alternating with cool nights are an advantage. Even with the fungus Botrytis (gray mold) is used for the production of special wines from nobly rotten grapes.
In about 100 of approximately 200 countries around the world are now planted vines. Whether a vine in a given climate grows depends, among other things, the Grape from. Is the best climatic conditions there in the so-called Vines belts (40 to 50 north and 30 south latitude to 40 degrees) in 100 to 400 meters above sea level, although there are also vineyards outside of these areas. There are very exposed, for example in the Tropics near the equator, and the most northerly vineyard in the world at the 60th to 62 Latitude. The highest altitude vineyard in the world are located in Salta (Argentina) in incredible 3111 meters above sea level. From the 1980s through the global changes are the Climate Change to a large extent be seen and felt.
The vine-determination is detailed in DNA and molecular genetics , the annual growth with the development sections under cycle of vegetation , the various vineyard soils with impact on yield and quality in soil type , the number of pests and diseases under Vine enemies- who pedigree with the numerous vine species under Vines classification , and the ancestors at Wild Vines described.