In the marketing field all around the world extensive use is made of English terms. You will find them here and everywhere on the Internet. For this reason, they are usually not adapted to other languages, such as German. Here we have summarized a few definitions of marketing terms that also apply to the marketing of wine on the Internet.


Page Impressions (PI)

Page impression refers to a page being called up. A Page impression (sometimes also referred to, grammatically incorrect, as „pageimpression“) is the complete call-up of a web page by a user. If you have a wine shop on the Internet, and a visitor visits your shop, calling up 10 pages in succession, then these are 10 page impressions. Likewise, if 10 different visitors each call up one page, this also amounts to 10 page impressions.

The number of page impressions is a good indicator of how intensively a particular website is used by users on the Internet. In interpreting this figure it is important to know how page impressions are measured. Many Internet providers us the so-called log file analysis to measure this parameter. In part, log file analysis also records page call-ups generated by the spiders of search engines. This results in much higher figures than when one is only counting human visitors, which is the case with so-called pixel analysis.

Synonyms for page impression include „page view“, „sight contact“ or „page call-up“. However, please do not confuse this with „clicks“ or „hits“. The abbreviation PI is often used.

By the way: have you ever wondered why picture galleries, collections of quotations or a quiz running to many pages are so popular on many web pages? Or why many long articles are spread over so many pages? Because of the structure, the user has to click through a large number of pages. That inflates the number of page impressions, which has a positive effect on the image and advertising income (although it is not particularly user-friendly). Such elements are this sometimes referred to as page impression boosters.

Pixel analysis / Log file analysis

There are two fundamentally different methods of measuring the type and intensity of use of one’s web page:

  • Pixel analysis: here a small, invisible picture 1 x 1 pixel in size is built into a web page. The call-up of this pixel is then analysed, and used to generate statistics. The key advantage of this method: automatic callus by spiders or robots generally do not result in this picture being called up. Pixel analysis is used by all professional service providers such as Google Analytics or Etracker, etc.
  • Log file analysis: a web server writes each call-up of a web page into a log file. This log file can be analysed and evaluated by means of special software. However, as each access is written into the protocol, automated access must be filtered out by means of sophisticated methods. This may work more or less successfully (also depending on the craving for recognition of the webmaster). Today, log file analysis is only rarely still used in the professional field. However, there are providers in the field of wine, who continue to communicate statistics based on log file analysis, simply because these look better.

Search Engine Optimization (SEO)

Search Engine Optimization includes all activities that have the objective of getting your page to appear as high up as possible in the results generated by a search engine. In this, SEO does not refer to separate advertising messages (also see SEM), but to the generic search results. These cannot be bought, instead each search engine uses a comprehensive set of methods (algorithms) that determine the order and ranking.

In this procedure, search engines use two main criteria:

  • How relevant is the searched-for term represented on the page?
    For example, when a user is looking for, say, „Wine from Rumania“, it is decisive whether this (or a similar) term occurs in the title of the page, in the page URL or in the text, and how often. All the steps of the SEO which are related to this are described as internal optimization, as they effect change only on the own page.
  • How important is the page in question for the searched-for term on the Internet?
    Here, too, there are many criteria analysed by search engines. The most important criterion is how many links from other important pages refer to this page. If, for example, a page that is important in the view of the search engine links to the topic of wine and/or Rumania on your page, then, in the opinion of the search engine, your page is also important relative to the search term „wine from Rumania. All the steps of the SEO which are related to this process are described as external optimization, as they take place not on the page itself, but on other pages.

Here in the glossary is not the right place to go into detail about SEO tips for the wine industry. However, we will be returning to this topic from time to time.


Targeting (indicating that one can address a target group very specifically) is the magic word when talking about effective online advertising. The idea behind targeting is to reach my target group as effectively as possible for the lowest cost possible. In essence, targeting makes it possible for advertising to be shown only (and also paid for) when this is being viewed by a user relevant to my objectives.


  • A wine producer wants to advertise an open-day event at his winery, in order to reach new groups of customers. To do this, he will analyse his potential target group, and will come to the conclusion that he is mainly interested in visitors that live within a radius of 50 kilometres of his winery. In addition, the visitors will be drawn mainly from a target group that is open for the topic of wine. When advertising his open day, he will discuss the matter with the provider of online advertising, and will ask him to reach specifically there target groups. The key benefit: with relatively low advertising costs (page impressions or number of E-Mails, etc.) he will reach exactly the target public he wishes to, with reduced scattering loss, and relative to his effort, will achieve an optimal result.
  • A wine merchant wishes to advertise what he has to offer for the restaurant trade. He is in a position to supply his products on a countrywide basis, and therefore considers his target group to be spread countrywide. Here the ideal targeting would be to address only restaurants located in (say) Germany.

How does targeting work (partly uses examples from WeinPlus)?

  • E-Mail Marketing: WeinPlus has a database filled with information on its users. Merchants, restaurateurs, consumers and other user groups are known entities. In addition, in many cases we have an address. Advertising mails can thus be sent specifically to users that correspond with specific criteria. To do this, the residential location, user group and other data can be evaluated.
  • Banner Marketing: The question of which banner is shown to which user at which time is neither random nor static. Instead, this depends on many criteria, which can be determined by the advertising customer in discussion with his customer adviser. Here, too, the objective is always to avoid unnecessary banner appearances (and the related costs), and to concentrate as sharply as possible on the target group.
  • Search Engine Marketing: the advertising shown by search engines such as Google is selected in relation to the search term as well as to other information on the user available to the search engine (e.g. websites previously visited). This ensures the advertising has a high degree of relevance for the user.

Contact Price per Thousand (CPT)

The contact price per thousand is the price for an advertising service per 1000 visual contacts of an advertising message. If, for example, an advertisement costs 500 Euros and is seen by 5000 users, then the CPT is: 500/(5 000/1 000 ) = 100 Euros.

The CPT is used as an indicator for the cost-benefit ration of an advertisement in many types of media.

In the case of online advertising, the CPT is the ratio of costs to page impressions. If an online campaign has one million page impressions and costs 50 000 Euros, the CPT is 50 Euros.

Frequently the CPT is also used as a basis on which to calculate the cost of online advertising. For example, if you book a campaign for which the CPT is set at, say 15 Euros, then the cost of the campaign will be calculated accordingly: number of page impressions times CPT / 1 000

Visit / Unique Visit

A visit is the term used to describe a visit to a website by a user. It is not relevant how many pages the user calls up. For as long as he remains on the website, it is always one visit. If the same user visits the website for a second time, this is a second visit.

A „Unique Visit“ is the visit by a uniquely identifiable user within a particular span of time. In the example set out above, the second visit by the same user would be recorded as two visits, but only as one Unique Visit.

There are also various methods used by web analysis tool to try to identify a unique visitor. Here, the IP address, cookies and other user data play a central role.

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